House Architecture and Construction
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Art to construct in rock and whitewash, the term masonry (of alvenel or alvanel - masonry mason -, of the Arab al-banná) also identifies to the set of rocks and other on materials of construction for mortar.
Insossa to the construction is said to masonry with juxtaposed rocks without mortar, and fat masonry to the masonry whose mortar is made with abundance of the whitewash in contraposition to the lean masonry whose mortar is made with little whitewash or cement.
In the conventional system of construction, the walls only close vain between pillars and the beams, elements in charge receiving the weight from the workmanship. On the other hand, in the Structural masonry these elements are unnecessary, therefore the walls - called portantes - uniformly distribute the load throughout the foundations.
To raise them, she is necessary to use special blocks, more resistant than the prohibition parts. They can be of concrete, ceramic, sílico-calcareous rocks or of cellular concrete, being also possible to appeal to the massive, seated with meetings failed to meet and moored bricks with hardware. The use of this system allows significant reduction in the cost of the workmanship, however she is necessary that the projects, more detailed, already they are elaborated considering the modulation of the blocks and the characteristics of the solution, therefore the stages of construction are different.
The Structural masonry also makes possible economy in the time of execution and the hand of workmanship. As they are pierced, the blocks allow the ticket of hardware (when necessary) and electric and hydraulical installations, preventing posterior breakings in the walls. Of this form, when total raised, the surface is ready to receive covering from plaster and, later, painting, excusing I tow and masses thick and fine.
However, the Structural masonry can present limitations for the future accomplishment of reforms and same magnifyings in the construction; for these last ones, a good alternative is already to consider eventual modifications during the elaboration of the project.
The schematical sequence of this process is given of the following form:
• executes the baldrame normally, being even its surface and waterproofing it;
• proceeds the nesting from the block-key, situated in the internal cantos and each meeting of the internal walls; they must be seated in agreement the modulation plant, marking accurately the position of the walls. The levelling between them is important;
• between the block-key is seated the blocks of the first line, in the accurate amount of the modulation plant, with 1cm of together vertical line;
• in the cantos of the construction height answer sheets are placed, with marking of the lines to each 12,5cm;
• is arisen, in each meeting, four lines (with 0,50m of height) in form of escantilhão, being kept the level and the plummet of the lines. In the external cantos the blocks are moored between itself for the nesting system; in the meeting of the internal walls with the masonry of the façade the knotting is made with chainses (¼ ") in form of two “L” (0,50 x 0,50m) to each 3 lines (obeying details of the calculator);
• in the nesting of the too much lines, the line of level in the edge of the blocks of the escantilhões will keep all the masonry in the required level and plummet;
• arises it masonry until the corresponding line to the base of the flagstone of the superior floor;
• executes it assembly of fôrmas for the flagstone (that it can be of any type);
• with aid of a ruler or level, is marked, in the block of the façade, the accurate position of the internal wall. Being seated it in the plummet, the marked position will be put in an upright position with the edge of the block-key of the first line;
• against-lintel: the wadding of the blocks in narrow channel with scaffolding of run iron becomes (specified for the calculator), with advance of 1 and ½ block of each side of goes;
• lintel: if necessary, the wadding of the blocks in narrow channel with scaffolding of run iron becomes (specified for the calculator), with equal advance to the one of the against-lintel. Double or triple narrow channels for vain are used above of 1,50m;
• proceeds it the concretagem from the floor flagstone;
• the block-key of the external cantos is seated in agreement the faces of the masonry and the plant of modulation;
• with the aid of a bubble level, from there moves the nesting of the block-key, that must be been even between itself;
• seated the block-key in one to walk, retakes the above described instructions for excessively.