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Useful art par excellence, aarquitetura is, of all the creations of the man, the one that the evolution discloses in deeper way them society to
long of its history.
The fact of being an art and science also applied took the architecture notion to include conceptions very diverse. The critical ones are frequent
of the professionals of the sector to the education of the architecture in colleges and university as one it disciplines purely “artistic”, integrated to one
general study of the diverse styles, without taking in account the formal problems and technician that had originated different solutions. This type of
education generated the idea of that a “great architecture” exists, analyzed in texts and manuals, and one other, proper of the great mass, without
no aesthetic pretension. In the end of century XIX, the British William Morris rebelled itself against these slight knowledge, defending that not if he could
to leave the creation at the hands of a reduced group of specialists. For it, the proper society had to be involved in the processes
To understand gênese of the architecture, it fits to attempt against for three determinative factors: the possibilities that at any given time techniques e
materials propitiate; the necessities the one that a building concrete takes care of; e predominant the artistic conceptions. They are, therefore, three
synchronous elements -- technician, social and aesthetic -- whose interrelation throughout the centuries marked the different periods architectural. Its
study it constitutes the base of the examined historical development in this article.
Civilizations North Africans and orientals. The appearance of the first civilizations around the great rivers -- Nile, Tiger, Eufrates and Indo --
it brought I obtain the development of the techniques basic architectural.
Egypt. Although the origins of the neolithic period in Egypt retrace to the start of the fifth milênio before the Christian age, only after the unification carried through for
king Menes in 3100 B.C., the architecture evolved. The basic materials had been adobe -- small similar block to the brick, prepared with clay
raw, dried to the sun --, used in the urban constructions, and the rock, with that if they built tombs and temples.
In the old empire, between 2700 B.C. and 2200 B.C., the constructions most important were the monuments fúnebres, in the simple principle
mastabas, rectangular tombs of bricks that later had served of sepulture to the noblemen and employees of the cut. For the tomb of faraós,
the colossal pyramids had been risen. Oldest preserved it is of king Zoser, erected for great Imhotep architect for return of 2700 B.C.
One is about a pyramid of steps, conceived as an overlapping of mastabas. In the following century, faraós of the fourth dynasty
they had ordered to construct pyramids in small plateaus of Gizé, that had passed to history with the helenizado name of those monarchs: Quéops,
Quéfren and Miquerinos. They were composed in blocks of roughed-hew rock, coated for a calcareous rock layer. In the interior of the building
one complicated labyrinth met to hinder the access of plunderers to the funerary chamber that sheltered the múmia of faraó and its
treasures. To the return of the pyramids it had great statues -- as célebre esfinge -- e a joint architectural that incluía the temple.
Faraós tebanos of the new empire (1567-1085 B.C.), had preferred to excavate in the rock its tombs -- hipogeus calls -- in order to become them more
insurances. The temples had been become into the main constructions and had assumed huge ratios in next places the Tebas, as
Karnak and Lúxor. The set consisted of an immense avenue, flanqueada for statues and obeliscos, that finished in a monumental door
with two great towers. Vine later a gallery of columns, called peristilo, followed for the rooms hipostilas of the priests, supported
for columns, and finally the sanctuary. It enters the temples excavated the holy ghosts in the rock, more célebre is of Abu Simbel, that Rameses II ordered
The construction system was the arquitravado one: great flagstone of rock, that constituíam arquitrave, was made use horizontally on
elements of sustentation, pillars or columns. In its basic form, these traces architectural had been remained until the decay of the civilization
Mesopotâmia and Irã. It is probable that it has been the Anatólia the region where first if they had developed the structures architectural. Jericó, to
edges of the river Jordão, already possuía a defensive cinturão of walls for return of 6000 B.C. In the milênio room, the sumérios would have
perfected the beddings technician where if they would base the great mesopotâmicas civilizations.
The peoples of the Mesopotâmia, region between the rivers Tigre and Eufrates, had used the brick over all -- stew or dried to the sun -- therefore the rock there
she was scarce. This allowed them to use the arc and the vault, elements architectural that would be recouped and transmitted to the Ocidente for
Romans. Although it enters the known monuments more of these cultures if find zigurates -- the highest temples in tower form
piramidal, with the reduced base gradually more --, it was in the urban architecture that its art reached the apogee. In the times of Hamurabi
(about 1750 B.C.), the Babylonian cities were surrounded by walls that if they structuralized in diverse levels, by means of cultivated terraces
-- the notables suspended gardens.
The construction of palaces reached its culminância with erected in Jorsabad for the king the Assyrian Sargão II, in century VIII B.C. Hollowings
they had shown that the enclosure accumulated of stocks ten hectares more than, including itself the palace, temples and other constructions, as well as decorative statues,
between which the monumental winged bulls with feições human beings who decorated the doors of the palace and that had conserved themselves almost unbroken.
The extension of the Persian empire to the Mesopotâmia from century VI B.C. did not provide to great innovations architectural. The ruins of
palaces of Persépolis and Susa disclose the knowledge that the Persians possuíam of the Babylonian and Egyptian techniques and also its domain of
column, of the arc and the vault. The fact, however, of that before using the brick and the rock they had used the wood gave its constructions
the bigger slightness that of the preceding civilizations.
India, China and Japan. Of the three classic cultures of the Extreme East, the first one was India to reach high degree of development in
architecture, as discloses the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro (2500-1500 B.C.), center of the old civilization of Going, cradle of the Pakistan. In
Buddhist period, that if approximately developed from century III B.C., was frequent estupas, half-spherical monuments of
religious character, that in Sanchi (century III B.C.), had arrived to reach 36m of height; viharas or monasteries; e chaityas, sanctuaries
excavated in the rock during centuries, as célebres caves of Ajanta, initiates in century II B.C. From century V the Buddhist cult
it started to be substituted by the bramânico and had constructed to temples of adobe and cut rock, decorated and sculptured in all
external surface, as the set of religious buildings of Hoysalesvara in Halebid. Of the fusing of the Muslim art with autóctone
constructions had appeared of singular beauty, as célebre Taj Mahal (century XVII), in Agra.
The vestiges older Chinese architectural retrace to the end of as the milênio one before the Christian age. In recent years of century III
B.C. started the construction of the great defensive wall against the peoples of the north, in rock, material reserved for this type of constructions,
therefore the Chinese architecture over all used the wood and the brick. The introduction of the buddhism in century I of the Christian age gave origin to the creation of
Chinese temple, pagode. Oldest conserved, of bricks, it is of Song Yue (century VI). The classic model, however, consisted of a fine one
wooden vertical structure that typically supported a hooped ceiling for top. The monumental set of the Forbidden City of Pequim
(Beijing), raised in century XVII and reconstructed in centuries XVII and XVIII, it represented the height and the synthesis of the Chinese art.
The development of the Japanese culture was slower, even so in century V B.C., already the temples were arisen xintoístas of Ize, that, built
in pine wood, they had arrived at the present time thanks to posterior reconstructions. The official adoption of the buddhism integrated the Japanese architecture
in the culture of China. Pagode of Todai-ji, in Nara, is one of the biggest structures wooden of the world. The height of the zen-buddhism, with its
conception of architecture integrated to the landscape, found its more perfect expression in the Rokuon Ji, of Quioto. To the few, the architects
Japanese had developed particular interest for the adequacy of the building its authentic functions, as it was clear in the agricultural palace of
Katsura (century XVII), of very simple structural lines.
daily pay-Greek européia architecture. The preeminence of the culture Greek in the development of the occidental techniques of construction led
to assign itself as “daily pay-Greek architecture” the diverse styles architectural appeared in the Europe before the apogee Greece.
Europe occidental person. From the milênio room before the Christian age the call was spread in the Europe megalítica culture, whose name provém of
its religious monuments fúnebres and, the megálitos. It enters most characteristic found menhirs -- enormous vertical blocks of
rock --, that in places as Carnac, France, throughout all the neolithic period, and Stonehenge, in England, about 1800 B.C.,
they had been grouped to form, respectively, sacred alignments and circles; e dólmens, tombs constructed with vertical flagstone that
they supported rocks horizontal. Dólmens had been developed until forming underground mortuárias chambers, that arrived to have 25m more than
of width, as the cave of Menga, in Málaga, in Spain.
In the course of as the milênio one a series of sufficiently advanced cultures appeared in the south of the Europe of the point of view architectural, between which
of the Argar, in the south of Spain, of talayots -- megalíticos monuments --, in the islands To transfer, and florescente culture of bronze in Córsega e
Sardinia, where if they had erected nuraghi, towers to the surrounded times of blockhouses. It would be, however, in Crete and Micenas that if would launch the bases
of the future architecture Greek.
Crete and Micenas. Between 2000 and 1450 B.C., blossomed in the island of Crete a commercial civilization that, by means of its influence in the culture
micênica, constituted the first antecedent of classic Greece.
The main building of the cretense architecture was the palace, whose structure we know thanks to the hollowings carried through in Cnossos, Hágia Triada
e Festo. The palaces had been conceived in the form of a set of diverse rooms and irregular corridors, around a great patio
rectangular. As the Egyptians, from which without a doubt they had received influences, the cretenses used arquitrave and used in its constructions
the adobe and the rock, even so possessed magnificent domain of the work of the wood, with that frequently the previous materials substituíam.
After destroying Crete, the aqueus of Micenas -- people of origin going-européia installed in the Peloponeso -- they had been able to develop one
proper architecture, of that some elements would directly pass to the art Greek. To the difference of Crete, whose condition to insular became it
less vulnerable, the micenianos had protected its cities with great walls, made of blocks of rocks badly roughed-hew, that had received
the name of “ciclópicos walls”. Most famous of these walls it is the one that surrounds the real palace of Micenas, with its monumental Door of
The micênicos palaces presented a clear influence of the cretenses, but the reduction of its basic components of construction announced
the taste for peculiar the rational order to the Greek architecture. Three essential elements remained in this: the propileus, or great doors of
entrance, before which if a porch of columns alçava; domo, or patio, also encircled of columns; e the central axle of this, mégaro,
central, composed building of a vestibule, an antechamber and the real room, or home, supported for four columns, probably wooden. Another one
important progress of the micênica construction fúnebres had been the constructions, particularly the calls “tombs of false vault”, in
which an accumulation of silhares spaced out superranks and gave the false impression of abobadamento.
Greek Greece. The invasion of Greece, around 1200 B.C., for other Indo-European peoples, the dórios, marked the end of micênica culture e
it banished the invaders that had preceded them, the jônios, for the islands of Aegean and the coasts of the Anatólia. The integration of dórios and jônios, that had given
its name to the two great orders architectural Greeks, constituted the base of the Greek culture, whose monuments more notables frequently
they had resulted of the fusing of the eastern influences with the elegance of the jônica art and the proper severity and the clarity of the dórica.
In the call geometric period, that if would extend approximately until the start of century VII, the architecture did not present great
innovations, and the used material more was the wood. It would be no longer archaic period, whose end if costuma to date of the beginning of century V, that, with
the height of you polish (the city) and the development of the construction in rock and marble, the architecture Greek would reach the maturity.
The basic construction around which the Greek architecture turned all was the temple, not as meeting place, but as the house of the god,
situated in an enclosure the one that if arrived through monumental doors. Its plant, inspired by mégaro micênico, consisted essentially of
a vestibule, or prónaos, that if the central chamber or naós opened for (also called cell), rectangular, surrounded for walls of rock e
where if it found the altar. In the opposing extremity to the prónaos it had another small chamber, opistódomo, that it was communicated or not with naós.
As the external structure of the columns, the temples received names diverse: prostilo, that it only had an order of columns ahead of naós;
anfiprostilo, that also possuía in the posterior part; e períptero, surrounded for one peristilo of columns.
They had been the elements architectural of the temples that had distinguished the dórica art, appeared in the Greek peninsula, of the jônica, that blossomed in
colonies of the Anatólia. The structure of these temples was basically same and the dimensions relatively reduced, therefore the culture Greek was
before all antropomorphus. The dórico temple was supported in a spaced out base, called estilóbato. On this they were risen directly
columns, whose body, or shaft, was estriado. In the superior part capitel was based, frame that put the columns in contact with
entablamento. This reproduced the structure of the old temples wooden, constructed with beams that if intercrossed, supporting itself in
columns and in the walls of naós to support the scaffolding of the ceiling. Such beams had been substituted by rock blocks. The entablamento, of low
for top, it was composed in three horizontal levels: arquitrave, that constituía the sustentation and had the smooth exterior; I emphasize it, ornado with
salience (métopes) and reentrances (the tríglifos); e the cornice, that if it projected of I emphasize it to protect of rain and if it drew out in two sides
superiors inclined, parallel to the source of the roof, formed by pair uped beams over which if they made use the roofing tiles. In the front
of the temple, the three sides of the cornice formed a triangle -- or frontão -- with the spandrel in the center, where they costumavam to place relives or
The structure of the dórico temple is conceived to enhance the contrast in accordance with enters the vertical forms of the columns, made use
geometric ratios, and the horizontal plans of the base and the entablamento. The jônico temple obeyed the same models. The two
basic differences were in the columns, that, to be more elegant, they needed a base (plinth) that it joined them to the entablamento and them
of this bigger sustentation, and in capitel more decorated, with two scrolls that sobressaíam of the body of the column. Moreover, as much
entablamento as the frontão more was decorated.
With the evolution of the techniques, the structure of the temples became more complex. In the jônicos temples of Hera and Ártemis in Samos, two
lines of columns divided naós in three ships. A tríplice peristilo of columns surrounded these temples. Similar disposal presented the temple
of Zeus in Olímpia, in dórico style, constructed between 470 and 450 B.C., no longer beginning of the classic period.
The height of the classic architecture Greek was without a doubt the monumental Acrópole de Atenas, sacred hill reconstructed in century V B.C., the one that if
it arrived for immense propileus of columns. Diverse escalinatas and strolls bound to the different constructions, providing unit
harmonica to the set. For this contribuía, equally, the fusing of jônicos buildings, as the Erectéion and the temple of Atena Nicéia, e
dóricos, as the magnificent Pártenon, constructed from 445 B.C., as plants of Ictino architect, and conceived according to criteria of
rigorous harmony, whose parameter was in the distance between the columns. The ornaments and the famous low-relives of Fídias showed one
clear intention to include traces jônicos e, therefore, the temple can be considered an authentic synthesis of the Greek classicismo.
From the start of century IV after-classic art started to develop it, that, after the conquests of Alexander the Great one in Asia,
it gave to place to the call hellenistic period. The mausoleum of Halicarnasso, construction fúnebre erected in that city in homage the king
Mausolo, died in 352 B.C., already disclosed influences eastern, that had been accented later. The trace more characteristic architectural was
capitel coríntio, variant of the jônico, however with the scrolls still more detached, in leaf form of acanto.
In elapsing of these centuries, the architecture Greek left to concentrate itself in the temple and demonstrated interest renewed for the civil constructions.
It was fixed definitive form of the theater -- oldest than it arrived until our days is of Epidauro, of century IV B.C. --, determining itself
regular ratios that had to conduct skené (scene) and the cávea, that costumava to support itself in the hillside of a hill. Over all in Egypt and in
Anatólia, developed the taste for the monumentalidade. They had been tests of this constructions today disappeared, as the lighthouse of Alexandria and
colossus of You twirl. However, she remains unbroken a part of the altar of Zeus in Pérgamo (century II B.C.), where architecture and sculpture if
they fundiram in a exaltado baroque style. Of the urbanístico point of view, the innovation expressiva was the application of the geometric project to
contour of entire cities, as plain generality for its posterior development.
Rome. During the first centuries of Rome, until the constitution of the empire, the architecture clearly was marked by hellenistic inheritance e
for the interpretation that the Etruscans had given to the traditions of the architecture Greek. The Romans had stolen to this people the hegemony in central Italy,
but they had conserved, among others elements of its culture, capitel Etruscan, that they had transformed into the toscano, simpler than the dórico.
The great innovations of the architecture Roman had appeared in the start of the Christian age, mainly of the point of view technician, thanks to the gradual one
perfectioning of the arc -- structure architectural of arched form that allows to win the space between colon, in general columns or pillars,
e to distribute enters these the pushes of the wall, the vault and the cupola. These elements were known by the mesopotâmicos peoples, however,
in Rome its job was more systematic and audacious, thanks to the elaboration and to the improvement of construction materials as the brick
stew and the concrete, that consisted of a particle agglomeration of sand, gravel, water and whitewash, that, for its malleability, could be
leaked in molds (or scaffoldings) and it conferred great cohesion to the walls and vaults. The extraordinary potential of these new techniques, that
they allowed to use minor number of columns and pillars, thus extending the interior space, was clear in the immense cupola of the Roman Panteão,
erected for Adriano in year 126, in which the vertical pushes provoked by its enormous weight are distributed, by means of a system of
arches, enter the walls of the cylindrical building that supports it.
The job of the orders Greeks and Romans, who in principle were common, was also diminishing from the time of Augustus, to be
but as decorative elements, in general in the temples. These, to the difference of the Greek ones, were raised on one high pódio with stairs e
normally they had circular or quadrangular plant.
The capacity technique of the Roman architects was disclosed in full way in engineering workmanships, as bridges and aqueducts, and in
constructions of civil use. The set most characteristic was the forum, that consisted of a public space where if they grouped different
constructions. Its side, or integrated it, found it basilica, building in which if they carried through since commercial meetings the sessions judicial, e
that in general possuía three longitudinal ships, of which highest it was the central office, with janelões that allowed to illuminate the interior. In the extremity
of the ships it had a semicircular enclosure destined to the court.
The Roman taste for the public spectacles also took to the construction of great theaters and anfiteatros, as the Maximum Circus of Rome and,
after its destruction, the Coliseu (70-82). Of the urbanístico point of view, the Romans had kept many hellenistic traces; the desire to become
more inhabitable cities led to the creation of an ample net of public spas, plumbings etc., as well as of numerous monuments e
ornamental constructions (arcs of triumph, obeliscos), beyond strolls and gardens. This concept also was extended to the agricultural construction of
houses and villages that, in certain cases, as célebre village of Adriano, in Tivoli, constituíam a perfect synthesis of elements architectural e
The increasing eastern influence in the Roman world and the gradual ideological descaracterização had motivated, with passing of the centuries, one
accented trend for the eclectic forms, the decorative baroque style and the monumentalidade. Consequence of this had been the immense spas of
Caracalla, in Rome -- with profusion of sculptures, floors, marble and estuque --, that they accumulated of stocks 14ha more than, and the sanctuary of Baalbek,
in the Lebanon. The inheritance Roman, however, would be conserved, from different perspectives, for Bizâncio and the medieval art paleocristã and.
architecture paleocristã and bizantina. The first erected Christian churches in Rome had adopted the model of the basilica Roman, who better took care of to
necessity to congregate a great number of fidiciary offices. Of They are Peter, in Rome, constructed in 324, was a classic example: five body
ships -- later the three construction would be become popular -- with wooden ceiling, where the central ship finished in one another one,
perpendicular, or transepto. When this possuía the same width that the first one, called cruise. After this, in the axle of the ship
main one confided abside, vaulted semicircular space that sheltered the altar. All the enclosure, that was not decorated and left at sight
the construction materials, were preceded for a vestibule or nártex and a forecourt. Its structure allowed to enhance abside, where the lateral ships
they diminuíam gradually of height in relation to the central office.
The origin of the Latin cross plant would be this, in which transepto divided the central ship in two different arms, and that it would be used
In the Roman Empire of the East, origin of the bizantino empire, developed the taste for the churches, with prominence for the central building. With
this intention, plants had been drawn central offices, of cross Greek (with the four equal sides), octogonais etc., or of basilica, with the cupola in
The bizantina architecture reached its esplendor maximum in century VI, under the reign of Justiniano. Influenced for the decorative tradition
oriental -- what he took them to cover the walls with mosaics, marble etc. --, for the techniques Romans and its application in the churches
paleocristãs, the architects of Constantinopla had created forms that had decided many of the problems of abobadamento not solved by
Romans. The main contribution of the bizantinos will have been, perhaps, the construction of cupolas on the base of a squared building. For this
end had created a system that consisted of making use four arcs in the main walls of sustentation, in way that the curvilinear trapezes between
the ring of the cupola and the arcs unloaded the pushes of the weight of the proper cupola.
Masterpiece of the bizantina architecture was the church of Saint Sofia, in Constantinopla, erected for order of Justiniano. Although its plant
rectangular, the exterior resembles it a set of grouped vertical volumes around an enormous cupola, with more than thirty meters
of diameter, raised on four semicircular pendants that if apóiam in two absides and two arcs. The light penetrates for forty windows
opened in the inferior part of the cupola. The tonic in the upright of this construction, also present in the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, center
of the bizantinas possessões in Italy, it exerted enormous influence in the conceptions architectural of the Christianity occidental person, extending itself it
Anatólia and to the Slavic countries.
not européias architectures. During the centuries that correspond to the européia Average Age, other cultures had blossomed architectural until then
without great relevance.
Arab architecture. The fast expansion of the Islã, from century VII, took the Arab people, primitively nomadic, to adopt the techniques
architectural of the conquered peoples. In the end of century VII the Domo of the Rochedo was arisen (mosque of Omar), in Jerusalem, inspired
in the bizantinos temples of circular plant. Of Bizâncio and the Mesopotâmia the Arabs had also used to advantage the vault and the arc, many times
With the time, however, the Arab architects had known to convert its sincretismo into a personal style, where the monumentalidade was attenuated
for the job of forms wavy curves and. The characteristic building was the mosque, next to which if minarete alçava. Of the high one of this tower,
fidiciary offices were called for the conjunct. Example of the creative capacity of the Arab architects is the appearance, no longer century IX, of the arcs
ogivais in the mosque of Ibn Tulun, in the Cairo, even so did not have the structural function that they would acquire three centuries later in the Europe.
Muslim Spain, for its peculiar geographic situation, abeberou in sources diverse architectural. In the mosque of Córdoba, initiate
in century VIII, columns and Roman capitéis meet since the arcs in horseshoe, that if believes to have been adopted of the visigótica art, therefore
existing at the same time in the East they were well formed. In the palace of the Alhambra, in Granada, whose construction if initiated in century XIII,
elements are genuinamente Arab, with predominance of private environments and the paisagística decoration.
pre-Columbian architecture. Although the vestiges architectural of the pre-Columbian peoples retrace the previous times very, the first ones
preserved monumental manifestations are the ones that integrate the joint architectural of Teotihuacan, whose temples if had raised between
centuries II B.C. and II of the Christian age. It enters the notables more examples of this impressive cultural center and religious it fits to cite the temple of the Sun,
palace of Quetzalpapaloti, whose disposal around a central nucleus remembers the Mediterranean palaces, and the Cidadela, where if it finds
temple of Quetzalcóatl, that discloses to notable domain of the cut rock. Also the truncated pyramids, typical of the architecture were gifts
Central American. The esplendor of Teotihuacan continued in the culture zapoteca, that erected the religious centers of Mitla and Monte Albán, and in
tolteca, with the great cities of Tula and Xochicalco. To this last one Mayan-tolteca leagued itself to the art narrowly, who blossomed between centuries XI
e XI and left as mark of its largeness the joint architectural of Chichén Itzá, in the peninsula of Yucatán. Beyond the job of the columns
-- temple of the Warriors -- e of the circular plant, the Mayans had tried for the first time to use the arc and the vault, that construíam with form
angular and that they were unknown of the too much peoples of Americas.
Last the great civilization of Central America was the Aztec, with capital in Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs dominated the use of the rock and the brick
dried to the sun. Its monuments more notables were the piramidal temple, or teocali, and the palaces. The peculiar trace of the Aztec architecture, in
meanwhile, it was probably its extraordinary urbanística conception, that converted Tenochtitlan into a lacustrine city with hortos and islands
artificial floating platforms, canals, sidewalk, levees and aqueducts.
In the South America notables had also blossomed civilizations that had developed techniques proper architectural, as the empire of
Tiahuanaco, appeared for return of century VIII of the Christian age, with traces of previous the regional cultures. Its more important ruins are
proper city of Tiahuanaco and the coastal sanctuary of Pachacámac. The culminância of the Andean architecture would be the civilization Inca, who cheated
extraordinary domain of the technique of the polishing rock and demonstrated in the great complexes architectural of Cuzco and Machu Picchu one
admirable notion of space. It is probable that the development of the pre-Columbian civilizations brought new solutions for many
construction problems, for its isolation in relation to the remaining portion of the world, but the Spanish conquest annulled this possibility.
The primórdios of the medieval architecture. Of the centuries that mediate between the end of the Roman Empire and the appearance of the românica art they remain
religious buildings, inspired in the tradition paleocristã and bizantina. Examples of this last one are the Palatina chapel, of Aquisgrana (current Aachen,
Germany), erected for Great Carlos in 805, as the model of octogonal plant, and the church of Are Marcos, in Venice, constructed in
Most common, however, it was the job of the plant in Latin cross, had basically to the necessity to extend the longitudinal body of
central ship to receive more numerous communities each time of fidiciary offices. In such a way, the regional variants -- carolíngia art, otoniana art in
Germany, visigótica and asturian art in Spain -- they had been approaching until arriving, around 1150, to the formation of a European style of
essentially common traces, the românico, whose expansion if had over all to the monastic orders, with prominence for the one of Cluny.