House Architecture and Construction
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After the fall of the Roman empire, mongóis, vandals, alanos, Francs, the Germanics and Swedish, among others peoples known generically as barbarous, had advanced definitively on the Europe. It was in course century V. These groups, essentially nomadic, had not delayed to assimilate the culture and the religion (Christianity) of the conquered peoples, at the same time where its proper cultural traces transmitted them, what it gave origin to a completely different art, that would seat the bases for the européia art of centuries VIII and IX.
The fact hábitat not to possess one fixed greatly influenced the customs and artistic expressions of the Barbarians. Its dexterity in the easily transportable object manufacture was notable, was utilitarian they of luxury or. All these peoples had had a common origin in the civilization celta, that since century V B.C. until the domination Roman if it established in the Europe of north the south and east the west. A time dominated, good part of the population was assimilated by the Roman empire and another one ran away northward. When the Roman empire only started to ruir was that they had obtained to penetrate in its borders and to establish numerous kingdoms, from which if they had originated, in part, the européias nationalities.
All time that culturally a well developed people conquered one another one who it was superior in this field, the winner assimilated the art and the language of the looser. The Barbarians had not been exceptions. Almost completely unprovided of architecture, then they had assumen themselves of the forms of the delayed antiquity and Bizâncio, which had added some proper elements. In the Gálias (France), the Francs had adopted in its constructions the rectangular rooms of three ships and abside to semicirculate, with would silharia wooden for the churches and cupola for the baptistries.
Some plants had enriched the space distribution with the addition of a gallery. The ostrogodos, in Italy, had raised more representative buildings and richly decorated with mosaics, in which they had combined the bizantinas forms with the Romans. In Spain, it was proceeded recovery from Roman buildings in the centers of each city, which if joined a Christian church, generally of plant in Latin cross form, with ships of heights different and decorated with relives and frisos.
Celtas and vikings had resisted more the Mediterranean forms. However, thanks to the presence of the numerous monasteries, the architecture and the arts they had finished being favored. Mixing rock with wood, they had constructed churches with roofs of rock of two waters, tipped for cylindrical towers, also of rock, that remember its funerary monuments. With respect to the profane architecture, the Barbarians of the north had preferred to continue construíndo its ortalezas wooden and adobe, surrounded for circular walls and irrigation ditch.
In Astúria an important artistic focus appeared, parallel to the Arab invasion. There, trends of the culture of the visigodos and the Romans were fundiram, opening space for a style that if would approach very to the românica art and that it would count on some of the elements most occidental (Church of Is Julião of the Prados).
The Irishans, in turn, even so total cristianizados, were contrary to the romanização. Thus, fidiciary offices to a style had been remained that mixed Nordic elements with the aesthetic megalítica celta.
However, most of the population lived in the agricultural zone, liveing in choças and huts that had origin in the previous villages celtas to the Romans. They always looked to the proximity of the water, arriving some times until constructing on of it, raised the houses on pilotís (palafítas).
In the year of 622, Maomé prophet if exiled (hégira) in the city of Yatrib that, since then, if knows as Medina (Madinat Alnabi, city of the prophet). Of there, under the orientation of califas, successors of the prophet, started the fast expansion of the Islã until Palestine, Syrian, Pérsia, India, Lesser Asia and North of Africa and Spain. Of nomadic origin, the Muslen had delayed certain time to establish themselves definitively and to seat the bases of aesthetic a proper one with which if they identified.
When making this, inevitably must have absorbed estilísticos traces of the conquered peoples, whom however they had known to very adapt well to its way to think and to feel, transforming them into its proper signals of identity. It was as soon as the bizantinas cupolas had crowned its mosques, and the splendid Persian carpets, combined with the colorings mosaics, had decorated them. Pparently sensual, the Islamic art was in the reality, since its beginning, conceptual and religious, being its almost magical beauty. The luxury and the opulence of the califados ones appear as in a story of a thousand and nights, between inalcançáveis flowery cupolas and minaretes.
The mosques (local of conjunct) had been constructed between centuries VI and VIII, following the model of the house of Maomé in Medina: one plants quadrangular, with a patio directed toward the south and two galleries with ceiling of straw and columns of palm trunk. The conjunct area was covered, while in the patio was fontas for the abluções. The house of Maomé was local of meetings for conjunct, center politician, hospital and shelter for poor. These functions had been inherited by mosques and some public buildings.
However, the sacred architecture did not keep the simplicity and the rusticidade of the materials of the house of the prophet, being example of this the first workmanships of califas: Basora and Kufa, in Iraq, the Cupola of the Roca, in Jerusalem, and the Great Damson plum Mosque. However, the concern with the preservation of certain geometric forms persisted, as the square and the cube. The geometrician was so important how much the architect. In the reality, who was it really projected the building, while the architect controlled its accomplishment. All age structuralized from geometry, since until the Arab language she is numerical and the buildings and its ornaments were the translation architectural of formulas and numbers of místico character, according to its doctrine.
The cupola or ceiling of pendants, inherited of the bizantina culture, allowed to more cover the square with a circle, being one of the used systems in the construction of mosques, has even so not existed a common model. The numerous local variations, had the great extension of this culture, made that its manifestaçãoes if adaptassem to the local styles keeping the distribution of environments, but nor always conserving its form. The mosques had transferred later part of its functions to the public buildings.
The residences of the emirs had constituted an architecture of second classroom in relation to the mosques. Its palaces were planned in a similar style, thought as a microcosm and constituíam hábitat privative of the governor. Example of this is the Alhambra, in Granada. Of quadrangular and surrounded plant of solid walls, the palace had ortaleza aspect, even so it communicated with the mosque by means of patios and gardens. I retire it more important was diwan or room of the throne.
Another one of the representative constructions most original and of the Islã was minarete, a species of situated cylindrical or octogonal tower in the exterior of the mosque to a significant height, so that the voice of almuadem it or muezim could arrive until all the fidiciary offices, inviting them it the conjunct. Its position in the urban nucleus always privileged age. The Giralda, in Seville, is an example of minaretes of the Andalusian art.
Other representative constructions had been the mausoleums or monuments funerary, similar to the mosques in the form and destined the saints and mártires.
The born workmanships of this culture are huge and leave the spectator without words. Many of its buildings are between the chosen ones for UNESCO as patrimony of the humanity, since the Atlantic coast of Morocco until the confines of China.