House Architecture and Construction
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It had Bizâncio, old colony Greek to the edge of the strait of Bósforo, and had a Roman that it decided to make of capital it of its imperio, with a name derived from its name. The Roman emperor was Constantino, successor of Diocleciano in the throne. E Bizâncio turned Constantinopla in the year 330. During the government of Teodósio the division of the empire (395) in two parts occurred: Empire of the Ocidente, with headquarters in Rome, and Empire of the East, with Constantinopla as capital. The part occidental person, invaded and dominated for the full brothers, was if disaggregating little by little, to the measure that the great proprietors and local heads if substituíam in the Power. In the Roman Empire of the East the bizantina civilization blossomed from century V, of Greek and Roman elements. The Christianity, pursued for Diocleciano (284 the 305), raised to the equality with the heathen cults in the kingdom of Constantino (306 and 337) and proclaimed official religion with Teodósio (394 the 395), would dominate in almost all its accomplishments. After the split of the Christianity, that lasted of century V to century XI, the old Bizâncio became the main center of the Orthodox Church.
The bizantina art had its center of diffusion in Bizâncio, more accurately in the city of Constantinopla, and if it developed from century IV as product of the confluence of the cultures of Lesser Asia and the Syrian, with alenxandrinos elements. The bases of the empire were three: the politics, the economy and the religion and, to keep the unit between the diverse peoples who coexisted in Bizâncio, Constantino officialized the Christianity, having the cuidade to emphasize in it aspects as ritual and images of the too much religious groups.
A time established in New Rome (Constantinopla), Constantino started the renewal architectural of the city, erecting theaters, spa, palaces and over all churches, since it became necessary, an officially established time the Christianity, to print its definitive public character in open buildings to the cult. The first churches had followed the model of the rooms of the basilica (real house) Greek: a gallery or nártex, to the times tipped by towers, gave access to the main, separate ship for rows of columns of one or two lateral ships.
The bizantina art was a Christian art, of eminently ceremonial and decorative character, where the harmony of the forms - basic in the art Greek - was substituted by the imponência and wealth of the materials and the details. It was unaware of perspective, volume or depth of the space and used in profusion the plain surfaces, where the luxurious and complicated ornaments sobressaíam better that folloied the figures. The orthodox religion, beyond inspirer, functioned as censora - the clergy established the sacred truths and the standards for representation of Christ, the Virgin, the Apóstolos, or for dither of the person of the emperor who, beyond absolute, with being able limitless on all the sectors of the social life, was the representative of God in the land, with authority equalized to the one of the Apóstolos. Thus, to the artist the representation fit according to only religious standards, little importing the wealth of its imagination or the expression of its feelings in relation the determined personage or doctrine sacra, or same to the sovereign onipotente. This exlica rigidity the conventional character and certain constant uniformity of style in the development of the bizantina art.
At the moment of its maximum expansion, the Bizantino Empire englobava, in the Europe, the Balkan territories limited by the Danube rivers, Drina and Sava, and part of the Italic peninsula (Exarcado de Ravena); lesser, Syria Asia and Palestine, in Asia; Egypt and the regions that today form the Lybian and Tunisia, in Africa. On the other hand, Constantinopla if raised in the entroncamento of the commercial routes between Asia and the Mediterranean Europe. The population of the empire understood, therefore, diverse nationalities, over all Greek.
The bizantina art suffered, thus, diverse influences, comings of Egypt, Syrian, Anatólia, Pérsia, Balcãs and of the proper antiquity Greek. Influences that if fundiram in Constantinopla, where if it processed the formation of a new style defining itself its traces. Its history can be divided in three main phases: the age of the gold, the iconoclastia and the second age of the gold. The first phase (age of the gold), corresponds to the reign of Justiniano (526 the 565), when Sofia constructed itself to the church of Saint, the more representative greater and of monuments of the bizantina art.
The second phase if characterized for the iconoclastia - movement that started more or less in 725, with a decree of Emperor Leão III that it forbade the use of images in the temples -; the third period was the second age of gold (centuries X and XIII) and in it if it gave to a new apogee of paintings and mosaics so fought by the movement iconoclasta.
Inhaled and guided for the religion, the architecture reached its more perfect expression in the construction of churches. E was necessarily in the religious constructions that if had revealed the diverse influences absorbed for the bizantina art. It had a removal of the greco-roman tradition, being servants, under influence of the Persian architecture, new forms of temples, different of the occidental people. It was at this time that if thus initiated the construction of the churches of cross plant Greek, covered for cupolas in form of pendants, obtaining itself to close spaces squared with circular ceiling of base. The predominant characteristics would be the cupola (superior and concavous part of the buildings) and the plant of central axle, also call of cross plant Greek (four equal arms). The cupola looked for to reproduce the celestial vault. This system, that seems already to also have been used in Jordan in previous centuries and in Old Rome, if transformed into the symbol of the bizantino power.
The cupola is originary of Lesser Asia, whose peoples, who always distinguished themselves as architects, had appealed to the expedient to suspend it on a square shaped construction or put-in directly in circular constructions. The Persians had imagined another alternative, placing on the square shaped base a octogonal cupola. The solution found for the Persians for the cupola rank on a square shaped construction was the abandonment of the circular form for base and the adoption of the octogonal form, on which if it raised the cupola, already not total round, but facetada in eight “arched triangles”.
The bizantinos architects had directly kept the format rounded off not placing the drum (great circular arc on which if he seats the cupola) on the base quadrade: in each one of its sides they had raised an arc, on the four arcs had placed a drum and, on this, with simplicity and segunrança, the cupola. The bizantinos architects had obtained apor to a square shaped construction a rounded off cupola, with the use of the system of pendants, “formed curvilinear triangles” of the intervals between the arcs and that they constituíam the base on which he was placed the drum.
The plant of central axle, or cross Greek (four equal arms), if imposed as natural consequência of the use of the cupola. The weights and forces that if distibuiam for equal in the cupola demanded elements of sustentation also distributed by equal, and this disposal occurred less easily in the rectangular plant or of Latin cross, with different arms.
The cultural apogee of Bizâncio had place under the reign of Justiniano and its architecture if it quickly spread out for the Europe occidental person, but adapted to the econômia and possiblidades of each city. It belongs to this time one of the buildings most representative of the bizantina architecture: the Church of Saint Sofia. If it does not have to forget that Saint Sofia was constructed without the concern with expenses, something that excessively governates nor always could be allowed.
They are also, among others, examples of the esplendor of the bizantina architecture, constructed for Antêmio de Trales and Isidoro de Mileto: the churches of Are Sergio and Are Baco and the Dos Santos Apóstolos, as well as the Church of Saint Irene