House Architecture and Construction
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The gardens and the forms in perfect harmony with the environment are two of the main characteristics of the Chinese architecture. The fragility of the wood, material that more used, explains why no monument did not survive to the ticket of the centuries architectural of the beginning of the history of the country, for return of year 2000 B.C. But an idea can be had of as it was this old architecture by means of texts or regulations and for the examples of Chinese constructions typically conserved in Japan, on platforms of rock or beaten land. One of the most known is the temple of Horyuji (Horyu-ji), in the outskirts of the Japanese city of Nara.
The forms. Plan of space squared or oblong walled and that if it develops throughout a axle North-South highway perhaps (what has religious origin) constitutes the basic unit of a house, or a city. In the case of the cities, in the interior of this space the administrative or religious buildings were risen, as well as residences endowed with patios. Little difference existed between the religious buildings and the secular ones, however the main façade of the most important building age always directed toward the south, therefore it was given credit to be to the north the source of the evil. The luxury was prevented, and the exageros in the ornamentação were considered indications of administrative incompetence.
How much to the structure, the column is the sustentation element. The main unit is an ample central area on a high and divided platform in lesser areas, called chien. The social area, tang, are placed ahead or of the two sides of the central space and to the times a assobradado annex, hsien still exists. The situated units the east and the west of the central part not rare become independent, with proper pilasters and coverings. Tai is observed frequently, platform that of beginning served as observation tower. In certain constructions the wooden tower of two also exists or three floors called lou, archetype of pagode, you. Most of the time, the building, with its forms in perfect harmony with the environment, had one alone to walk and were endowed with garden. The color was used in profusion, but always subordinated the rigid legal projects. The yellow, for example, was private exclusively for the imperial building.
Pagode, the most typical example of the Chinese architecture, in general is risen isolated, next to a temple, ahead of the vestibule that contains the altar with the sacred images. One is about a building of some floors superranks, each one of them lesser of what that one on which if apóia, and that it always finishes for a decorated ridge. It possesss a main door to the times tipped of two symmetrical bastiões, and two laterals. The arc was known since the period Han (206 a.C. - 220 of the Christian age), used always with moderation and for utilitarian ends. Later it would reappear, for Hindu influence, in the porches of the Buddhist temples.
History. Vestiges of vestibulies with columns on platforms of beaten rock, foundations of one cidadela with bastions and tombs immediate to checker had been discovered in Anyang (Ngan-yang), capital of the emperors of the first historical dynasty, the Shang dynasty (1766-1122 B.C.). On the architecture of the Zhou period (Chou) (1122-255 B.C.), it is made use only of references in literary texts. The form refined architectural more of the time seems to have been ming tang, probably a real patio that if it used only during certain part of the year.
A Chinese national architecture appears during the Qin dynasty (221-206 B.C.), in the reign of emperor Shi Huangdi (Shih Huang-you), that it constructed in its capital innumerable palaces, good bigger and more luxurious than the built ones for its predecessors. It is exactly of this period that dates the Great Wall, one of the most important workmanships of the Chinese architecture and engineering. Conceived to contain the invasions of the Barbarians of the north from a series of walls of the Zhou period, it if it extends throughout 2.300km, (Shanhaiguan) of Shan-hai-kuan, in the coast of the province of Hebei (Hopeh), until Jiuquan (Chiu-ch'uan), in the province of Gansu (Kansu). Constructed in land originally beaten, it was remade to the base of rock and bricks under the emperors of the dynasty Ming (1368-1644). In high its a road of approximately five meters of width was constructed and at intervals regular towers are risen, whose height does not exceed the twelve meters.
Of the Han period, it remains an only construction, the small funerary chapel in rock of Xiatangshan (Hsi t'ang-shan) that it has its walls decorated with notchs. Sabe, however, that in the period she was registered an intense activity in the sector of the construction, as much in the first capital, Changan (Sian), how much in second, Luoyang (Lo-yang). It enters the built building in this time, were distinguished the palace of Chang it and ming t'ang of Wang Mang -- a rounded off structure that rests on square shaped base, of cosmic symbology. In the period, it appears for the first time lou it, archetype of pagode.
Throughout the called period of the Six Dynasties (221-589), the fast expansion of the buddhism excited a great increment of the construction of temples. It enters the years of 530 and 570, already they existed nothing less than thirty a thousand temples only in northern China. The Buddhist temple followed the tradition and was dominated for pagode, partially derivative of lou it, but perhaps also of the tower raised in Peshawar, in the current Pakistan, with 13 floors encimados for an iron ridge from which 13 gold records hung. The building oldest of this period is the monastery of the Sung mount, with nitidamente Indian details.
The activity architectural increased with the reunificação, under the Sui dynasty (581-618). Notables had appeared then architects, as Yang Su, that traced the plan of the new city of Luoyang; Yu-wen Kai, who created a version perfected of ming tang; e Yen Pi, responsible for the restoration of the Great Wall. In the Tang period (618-907), the art and the architecture had lived a gold phase. The capital, Changan, were a walled city, immediate symmetrical.
Some sovereigns of the time had constructed sumptuous building, but in year 827 a decree fixed the dimensions and limited the number and the types of ornamentação of the official building. Little remained of the temples wooden, but they subsistiram pagodes of rock or mortar, of which most typical it is probably the Tayen You (Grande pagode of the goose), of year 652, in Changan, with seven floors and 58m of height. Its complicated structural system drift of the carpentry techniques. An innovation of the Tang period is the octogonal plan, exemplificado for the tomb of Jingzang (Ching Tsung), in the Sung mount.
The architecture of the Song period (960-1279) is marked by appeals it to the tradition. At this time, the architects try to confer greater force and expressividade to the constructions, with the use of a decoration characterized for the intensity of the color and the frequent use of vitrified roofing tiles and lajotas. They still exist about sixty pagodes of this period, the majority of century XI, therefore the zen-buddhism, tax from century XIII, did not favor this type of construction.
The most typical forms of Song architecture can be studied in Japan, where if they called Karayo (style of China). With the barbarous invasions, prenuncia a gradual decay of the Chinese architecture. The Song style takes advantage under the domain of the mongóis (1280-1368) and the only newness of the time is a new type of pagode, of six floors and octogonal plan, influence of the tântrico buddhism Liao (pagode white of Father, in Jinzhou (Chin-chou), Liaoning, of centuries XI and XI).
Although the innumerable monumental constructions of the time, the decay continues during the dynasties Ming (1368-1644) and Qing (1644-1911/1912). However the construction of one is of the period Ming of the most known workmanships of the Chinese architecture, the Forbidden City, in Pequim (Beijing), inside of which if it locates the imperial palace. The Song style is reduced to a cold formula and without imagination. A well representative workmanship of the time is the temple of Zhihuazi (Chih-hua-ssu), of 1444, in Pequim, of small dimensions and with interior richly decorated. The internal and external division politics, conflicts, and the economic collapse, mark the decades that if follow to the end of the imperial regimen, in 1912. The decline of the architecture if accents, over all after the sprouting of the buildings of some floors, constructed to the way occidental person.
The cities that in century XIX had suffered to greater influence from the Ocidente present a confused mixture of styles that do not have no relation with the architecture of the country. After the 1949 revolution, had been registered attempts of promotion of a Chinese architecture that, using the modern technological resources, stated the new style of life of the country. With its ecleticism, the Communists had kept some traditional elements and had tried to join the cultural inheritance to the modernization. One of the most significant examples of this trend is You the Hui-tang, the Congress of the People, in the capital.