architecture Dórica Order
House Architecture and Construction
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It does not remain doubt of that the temple was one of the legacies most important of the art Greek to the Ocidente, having its origins to be looked for in megaron micênico - I retire, of sufficiently simple morphology, although to be the main room of the governor - that nothing more age of what a rectangular room, which if had access through a small porch (pronaos), and four columns that supported a ceiling similar to the current roof of two waters.
In the principle, this was the project that marked cânones of the construction Greek and was from the perfectioning of this basic form that if configured the Greek temple as knows it today, being for the type of column that if it knows this architecture, been born it has 2,500 years, and that it continues to fascinate the scholars and to attract tourist to the columns of Atenas.
The primitive Greek temples were considered dwelling of deuses. In one I retire special, come back toward east, was the statue of the deity. It had a porch, that the Greeks called prónaos, and a great room, called, in turn, náos. Some bigger temples were encircled by columns. The náos, in these temples, had also two rows of internal columns to assist the sustentation of the ceiling. In the start, the used materials were adobe - for the walls - and the wood - for the columns. Later, from century VII B.C. (archaic period), they had been falling in disuse, being substituted by the rock and the marble. This innovation allowed that a new row of columns in the external part (peristilo) of the construction was added, making with that the temple got a profit in what touches to the monumentalidade. The first styles had appeared then architectural. Initially, two orders (or styles) architectural predominated: the Dórica (to the south, on the back of the Peloponeso) and the Jônica (the east). Later, well later, it appeared plus one, the Coríntia order.
The Dórica order was first and the simplest of the orders architectural, being a version in rock of the parts wooden. The dórico style comes in first place for a very simple reason: the dórico was one of the first peoples who had dominated Greece. In this order, the main part of the column, or shaft, rests directly on the basement; the finishing in the high one of the column, or capitel, is extremely simple; the part that seats on the capitéis, or arquitrave, is wide, massive, without rebuscamentos.
In the dórico style, the columns have ridges from above the low one (caneluras), because this is the way most easy of if decorating a wooden trunk. In the top, one has asked for round (equino), to hinder the water penetration them rains. On the equino, one has asked for plain (abacus), to distribute for equal the weight of arquitrave e, on this, supported, the tips of the beams wooden of the ceiling, sculptured with three ridges (triglifo) and with decorated or simple parts to fill they go (métopas).
Finally, the beiral of the ceiling (cornice), decorated with ceramics parts throughout the extremities (acrotério). The equino together with the abacus receives the name from capitel; the triglifos and métopas form emphasize it; I emphasize it and the cornice agreed constitutes the entablamento.
The most important temples of old Greece had been of the Dórica order. These temples were in general low and massive. The thick columns that gave sustentation to them did not make use of base, and the shaft had acanelada form. Capitel, very simple, finished in a convex frame to a entabalamento (system of cornices) formed by one arquitrave (inferior part) and one I emphasize of tríglifos (acanelada decoration) entreados by métopas.
No longer century V B.C. the Greeks anticipated one practical that the Romans would adopt much more late where the some parts of an order could be used to construct temples of different form of the rectangular one, traditional one until then. They had arrived to make a circular temple Tholos call, in the city of Delphos.
The first temples probably had straw ceilings (sapé). Later, the ceilings had started to have the flattened triangular part (petition) and could have been used ceramics roofing tiles. The petition, to the side of peristilo, is one of the known characteristics more of the Greek temple.
In the architecture Greek, nothing he was arbitrary or purely decorative e, in virtue of the system measure standard, until the details that normally have dimensions fixed, as doors and windows, varied of ratio in harmony with the set. It was in the Partenon that this harmony reached its higher degree, becoming it one of the biggest works of art of all the times.
The temples of Poseidon (Neptune) and Hera, in Paestum, Italy, and the temples of Selinunte, in Sicily, beyond the Partenon, better represent conserved monuments of the Dórica order, and date of century V B.C. Its more characteristic notable is the bending of the lines, that give appearance of straight lines, but in the reality they present a small bending, to eliminate the impression of divergence of the numerous columns. In the temple of I bake the gradual reduction of the diameter of the columns almost gives the form to them of a spindle, being one of the first inclusions, in a dórico temple, of one I emphasize of the Jônica order.
Per almost four centuries - of century VI to III the B.C. - the dórcia order predominated in Greece, Lesser Asia, Sicily and southern Italy, creating beautiful monuments. After reaching its apex, in the Partenon de Atenas, more or less in the third century the Dórica order started to be abandoned. To succeed it, it appeared another wonder of the art Greek: the Jônica order, with different characteristics: thinner and more gracious columns, with fast estriado, triple base and one capitel in scroll. Although its Dórica base, the Partenon reflects something of the subtility of the Jônica influence.