House Architecture and Construction
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The temple of Luxor, to the side of the temple of Karnac, had been one of biggest monuments of the city of Tebas, in Old Egypt. Its construction was taken the effect under the reign of Amenhotep III, and dedicated to the triad of Tebas. Although colossal in size - about 275 length m -, it presents at the same time single threads, geometric. Columns, walls and arquitraves were covered by reasons inspired by the victories of faraó, in alive colors. To the front of the temple it had colossal statues and two obeliscos that are today in the Square of the Concord, in Paris.
The Egyptian architecture united imponência and simplicity. All its forms if originated from the residential. This had rectangular plan and was made use around trunks of palms or other trees. Exactly later that the Egyptians had adopted other materials - as the rock -, the vegetal subjects subsistiram in the decoration: lótus, palm, papyruses.
With the expansion of the power of the clergy, the temple started to be the form dominant architectural; in them, rows of esfinges tipped the sacred road. The columns were colorful, exhibiting reasons of the vegetal nature. Capitel, pefeitamente geometric, had the ornatos in the base and high of the column estilizando flôr of lótus (one of the characteristics marcantes of the Egyptian architecture and decoration).
s mobile, of rigid forms, richly was ornados of a decoration of alive colors - following the same style of the architecture. Flowers of lótus and papyrus, sprouts, wreaths and animals appear in the decorations of the furniture.
The colors were always alive and the simple, very geometric lines, as in the same architecture and in the clothes. It notices that also the goblet has form of flower of lótus.
The sculpture served then to the architecture completing it, generally in low-relief form that - of rock or bronze - represented the daily scenes in such a way how much the victories of faraós, or landscapes still simplified. It never has perspective: in the figures, eyes and shoulders appear of front, even so the remaining portion of the profile body; faraó is always much more high that the priest or military man, the cortesão, the servant, the defeated enemy. But it is lesser of what the god who impersonatied in the land, according to Egyptian.
The painting complemented the sculpture or decorated the great surfaces of the buildings. Gradation, mixture of tonalities were not used, nor clearly-dark. The colors most common were gray and blue, beyond the black color. In the blue ceiling of the temples, the stars are represented by small luminous points.
Pirâmnides is without doubts the paradigm of the Egyptian architecture. Its construction techniques continue being object of study for engineers and historians. The pyramid was created during dynasty III, for Imhotep architect, and this magnificent workmanship it was valid the divinização. At the beginning the Egyptian tombs had the form of small boxes; they were made of adobe, receiving the name from mastabas (bank). Mastabas was of this architect the superpor idea, giving to them pyramid form to it. Mastabas therefore, was constructions that if sobressaiam of the land, in the Egyptian tombs, and were formed by a compact module of rocks or bricks, having the inclined walls and of rectangular form.
The spaced out pyramid of Djeser, idealized for the architect and Imhotep doctor, is the first structure of this type. Constructed with rock instead of adobe, it came to be the newness that left stops backwards traditional mastaba, much more simple in the form. Also if the substitution of the adobe for the rock, what without a doubt he was more appropriate, in view of the conservation of the body of the deceased must the Imhotep.
The first pyramids had been of king Djeser, and them they were spaced out. The pyramids more célebres of the world belong to dynasty IV and if they find in Gizé: Quéops, Quéfren and Miquerinos, whose faces are completely smooth. The regularity of certain pyramids must-xe pparently to the utlização of a golden number, that much few architects knew.
Another type of construction had been the hipogeus, temples excavated in the rocks, dedicated to some deities or one in particular. Normally they were divided in two or three chambers: the first one for the profane ones; the second for faraó and noblemen; e third for the supreme priest. The entrance to these temples was protected for galleries of statues of great transport and esfinges.