House Architecture and Construction
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Century X finds the Europe in crisis. The real power, weakened, was substituted by the feudalismo. Invasions threaten France. Forsaken, the people if organizes around the castles feudal, only - and precarious - ortalezas. The popular tension contributes so that if it spreads the belief propagated for the Church to that if it approaches the final judgment: the world goes to finish in year 1000. The românica art, aesthetic expression of the feudalismo, reflects the fear of the people. Sculptures announce the apocalypse, paintings wall appalling portray the panic that not only invades France but all the Europe Occidental person. Year 1000 arrives and the world does not finish. Some necessary thing to happen.
In 1905, the Cruzades appear first. The feudalismo still remains, but everything indicates that it will not be able to resist for much time. New thinkers become to hear, propagating its ideas. The first Universities are established. Subitamente, literature grows in importance. Many Europeans, until then confined to the life in the villages, start to have a ampler vision of the world. Deep social change is the way.
Pressentindo the fall of the feudalismo, the art anticipates it the events and creates new style, that will go to coexist during certain time the românico, but taking care of to the new necessities. True work of futuristas of the time, the gótico style appears for the first time in 1127, in the architecture of the basilica of Saint-Denis, constructed in the region of Ile-of-France, today Paris.
Ends of century XI. Thanks to the support of the bourgeoisie and the diligent classroom, the kings obtain to retake its authority. Weakened, the feudal power goes to the few disappearing. The population starts to have greater influence in the national public life, of which it had been until then mere spectator. Euphoric ahead of the proper importance, the inhabitants of each region feel the necessity to demonstrate its emancipation. The cathedral will be the symbol of its victory. There the religious acts, but the communitarian activities of all the group will be become fullfilled not only: it will be the house of the people. Not fuller of tenebrous sculptures and drawings, but high, imponent, illuminated. That its pontiagudas towers try to reach clouds. It exempts of the fear of the end of the world, the people is livened up by new blow of faith. The walls of its temples must leave to enter the light of the sun in multiple colors that remember the divine presence
Of the necessity to construct cathedrals that corresponded to the euphoria and the misticismo of the people, the Gótica architecture appeared. The first ones had been constructed in France, around of where if it finds the city of Paris today; one of the first regions was this to eliminate the feudalismo.
Nobility, clergy and popular mass competed in mística generosity. The objective one was one only: to collaborate for the construction of the dispendiosas cathedrals. With the monarchic authority each assured time more, the old feudal zones had been transforming and had appeared the first cities: Noyon, Laon, Sens, Amiens, Reims, Beauvais, where if they find the Góticas cathedrals more beautiful of the world.
The gótico style is identified as the period of the great cathedrals. In fact, with its constructions they had started to be defined the basic principles of this style. The gótico had beginning in France, new center of being able after the fall of the Sacro Empire, emmeados of century XI, and finished approximately in century XIV, even so in some countries it remaining portion of the Europe, as Germany, if it understood until good after initiate century XV.
The gótico one was an art imbuída of the return of the refinement and the civilization in the Europe and the end of the barbarous medieval obscurantismo. The gótico word, that make reference to reference the godos or barbarous peoples of the north, was chosen by the Italians of the renaissance to describe these uncommon constructions that, in its opinion, escaped to the well proportionate criteria of the architecture.
It was in the universities, under the severe postulate of the scholastic - God As Supreme and Mathematical Unit -, that the bases of this eminently theological art had been established. The upright of the forms, the pureness of the lines and I hide it of the ornamentação in the architecture had been carried also to the painting and the sculpture. The gótico implied a renewal of the forms and techniques of all the art with the objective to express the divine harmony.
The Gótica architecture if supported in the principles of a strong theological symbolism, fruit of the purest scholastic thought: the walls were the base spiritual of the Church, them pillars represented the saints, and the arcs and the nerves were the way for God. Moreover, in the decorated vitrais spotted and if it taught to the people, by means of the magical luminosity of its colors, histories and stories contained in the Sacred Holy Writs.
The Gótica construction, in general way, if differentiated for the rise and dematerialization of the walls, as well as for the special distribution of the light in the space. Everything this was possible thanks to two of the innovations more important architectural of this period: the arc in tip, responsible for the vertical rise of the building, and the crossed vault, that came to allow the covering of squared spaces, arched or irregular.
The used arcs of half circumference in the vaults of the românicas churches made with that all the weight of the construction was unloaded on the walls. This compelled to a resistant lateral support: massive pillars, thicker walls, few openings for are. The space for the windows was well reduced and the interior of the church became gloomy. The spirit of the people asked for to light and grandiosidade. Then as to obtain them?
The arc in half circumference was substituted by ogivais arcs or crossed arcs. This divided the weight of the central vault, making with that it unloaded itself on
some points, simultaneously, being able to be used lighter material, as much for the vault as for the sustentation bases. In place of solids pillars, esbeltas colunetas had started to receive the weight from the vault.
The remain of the weight was distributed by external pillars. These, in turn, send to the weight to the abutments - pontiagudas towers and very worked, that substitute the massive românicas pilasters, with the same function. The towers give to more height and Majesty to the cathedral. The walls, losing its importance as sustentation base, pass to be made with one of the materials most fragile of that if it made use: the glass. The desired luminosity appears. Great and feéricos colorful vitrais illustrate in drawings scenes of the Christian life. The magic of the góticos vitrais, that filter the light of the sun, fulls the church of a mística clarity that remembers the divine presence.
The system of consisting supports of cantonados pillars and fasciculados, small cylindrical columns and nerves, together with the arcobotantes, became the wall lightest, until its almost total disappearance. The ogivais windows and the rosettes had still more accented the transparency of the construction. The intention was to create in the visitor the impression of a space that if alçava infinitely until ceu it.
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