House Architecture and Construction
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In the construction of temples and public buildings, the Greek architects did not use aglutinante material to join the rocks of that if they made the columns: these were only superece of fishes, but, although the few available ways for the cut and burnishing, if incased with such precision that one enters and another one does not have as to insert a needle.
The architecture Greek has in the temple its bigger expression and the column its peculiarity. The column marks the ratio and the style of the temples. Of beginning, the Greeks had known two types of order (style) of columns, the dórica and the jônica, and later they had added the coríntia, derivative of the jônica, with capitel endowed with leves of acanto.
In the architecture of a geometric period, between 725 years 900 and B.C., the houses are immediate irregular and the temples have long and narrow, however almost square shaped plant however, with a central column (or central line of columns) as support. The models of terracota of the constructions of Argos leave to perceive a pair of columns before a small rectangular chamber, on which if alteia a pontiagudo roof. The preferred materials of construction were the raw brick and the wood, with some use of the rock.
From century VI B.C., the orders had been developed dórica and jônica, essentially Greeks. The most primitive example of the dórica order is seen in the temple of Apolo, Term, in the Etólia, and the jônica order was born in the Aegean oriental, in cities as Samos and Esmirna. The temple earned in amplitude and the use of the rock, over all marble, became each more frequent time. Escultóricos relives had started to decorate the constructions, with floral and figurative reasons, as in the temple of Prínias. During short interval, one practised in Neandria and other places searched carefully capitel palmiforme of aeolian type, of Syria origin. In Prínias, Deméter and Selino persist a model of temple destitute of porch, that estimates older origin.
Between 500 years 600 and B.C. (archaic period), the models sketched in the previous period had been extended and elaborated with gradual refinement of the ratios, while the capitéis if had become more elegant and the escultórica action of the frontões started to better combine in the structure architectural. At the same time, the color widely was used to vivify the ornament in rock, generally marble.
The typical Greek temple started to obey then a plan where if they succeed an access porch, the main chamber with the image of the deity and, frequently, one I retire to the deep ones. Uma colunata (peristilo) surrounds the set, covered for a leaning upon roof. Two lines of columns divide, to the times, cella (private chamber to the deity) in a central ship and two lateral sections. Marcantes examples of archaic dóricos temples are found in Corfu, Term, Selino, Stamp, Pesto, Atenas, Cirene, Corinto, Súnio, Asso and Delfos. It enters the most important jônicos temples of the period are cited of Éfeso and Samos, both dípteros, that is, endowed with double colunata.
Classic period. All the classic architecture (produced between 300 years 500 and B.C.) characterizes for an absolute sense of organicidade and balance, subordinating itself its ratio to the mathematical order. At this time, that if extends of the ending of the temple of the Alcmeônidas, in Delfos, to the beginning of the “century of Péricles”, when the embelezamento of acrópole of Atenas was undertaken, the efforts of the architects had been concentrated particularly in the perfectioning of the dórica order. The jônicas cities and islands had fallen in being able of the Persians, what perhaps it explains the rarity of the jônicos temples at the time. In contraposition, the architects had strengthenn themselves to harmonize the relations between the diverse elements architectural and to determine modules for the dórica order.
First the great dórica construction of the period was the temple of Zeus, in Olímpia, raised second risk of Libão in 456 B.C. When Atenas was reconstructed, in the government of Péricles, had concentrated in the hill of the Acrópole some dóricos temples, of which most important -- that, in the truth, it marked the apogee of the classic style -- it is the Pártenon, constructed for Ictino and Calícrates and decorated with sculptures conceived for Fídias. From now on, this workmanship, with eight columns of front and 17 of each side, influenced all the art and all the architecture of Greece, supplying to it a standard where if they join the ideal conception of the form and the ratios human beings and a calm and deloused emotional approach. The jônicos temples of the classic period, if had lost in amplitude when comparative to the ones of the archaic time, surpass-in the ones in favour and pureness.
The orders dórica and jônica launched hand of abstract reasons or half-abstract to symbolize the organic life. The architects of the delayed classic period, in contrast, had preferred traduziz it more literally and for such they had made use of ornaments inspired by acanto and other plants. The last order appeared thus of the architecture Greek, the coríntia, announced in the temple of Apolo, in Bassas, and that B.C. became popular from 334.
After that, the coríntio style agreed it the dórico in many buildings: that private for the interior, this for the façade (temples of Atena, in Tégea, for Escopas). The end of the classic period witnessed a revitalização of the jônico style, for influence of Píteas architect (tomb of Mausolo, in Halicarnasso), that the monumentalidade abandoned the search of the refinement in exchange for.
Hellenistic period. Until the classic phase, the Greek architects faced each construction as a complete unit in itself same e, as such, detached of excessively. In the hellenistic period (between 100 years 300 and B.C.), such trend disappeared and the architects, customary to project new cities, had searched the complex architectural, that had carried through in small farms as Cós, Pérgamo, Antioquia, Selêucia and Magnésia. It was the time of the development of urbanism: the porches had been multiplied and the streets had been crossed in straight angle, frequently flanqueadas for colunatas. The plan of the ágoras (squares) became to regulate, with constructions consecrated to the popular meetings.
Also at this time the set started to dim the detail, as it is observed in the temples elaborated for Cossúcio (of Zeus, in Atenas) and Hermógenes (of Ártemis, in the Magnesia), or in the great altar of Pérgamo. The interest was dislocated for the secular or half-secular buildings, as deambulatories (colunatas of Priene, Pérgamo and Atenas), assemblies (Mileto) or libraries (Pérgamo), without speaking in the palaces, villages and residences. The residences of the hellenistic period are of modest ratios, but from century III B.C. had become luxurious. The parts are made use around dórico a central patio with peristilo, and decoration in painting, estuque and mosaic. The construction of the theaters was modified: the choir disappeared and the proscênio increased with a decorated wall of deep.
The contact with the not-Greek architectures (of Egypt, Syrian, Mesopotâmia) took to the production of new types architectural, with what the ornamental repertoire was become rich. The orders Greeks had reached the same Pérsia and India, fundindo themselves in many occasions to the local styles. To the ornamentação of vegetal matrix it was joined, for rhythmic necessity, of animal base, and the ornaments had been not rare conceived as object realistic rejoinders of the cult (guirlandas, ritual parts).
In the Christian age, the hellenistic basilica was most used until century V. At the beginning of century VI appeared the church of cupola and plant Greek. Before it exempts, the cruciform plant started to be inserted in rectangular walls, with octogonais external walls. Its apogee was verified in centuries XI and XI, with the use of four cupolas, one in each arm de a Cruz.