House Architecture and Construction
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Of essentially religious origin, the Indiana architecture finished for assimilating, during the européia settling and the British occupation, the European styles of construction.
The Indiana architecture understands the set of traditions that, from the third milênio B.C., the construction in the Indian subcontinent dominated (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka), with consequences in the Indochina and Indonesia. It encloses since magnificent temples of hinduístas, Buddhists, jainistas and Muslen, until the modern buildings whose construction started from the British domination.
Valley of Going. The first urban civilization of that if it has notice was developed in the valley of the river Going, in the current Pakistan. Mohenjo-daro, the “hill of deceased”, Harappa and Kalibangan is the small farms most important of this culture. One is about a set of ruins of three cities superece of fishes. The plan of one of them leaves to see a tram regular of streets and avenues, some of 7,5m of width, with building of some floors. The constructions were of similar bricks to the current ones, but they did not use columns. One of the ruins most imponent is of a health-resort, perhaps used in religious ceremonies. It has remaining portions of an enormous temple under the ruins of a posterior Buddhist temple, what it hinders the hollowing. These small farms are the examples oldest of populations previously planned and constructed with method.
Mauria period. After the expulsion of the Greeks, who, led for Alexander the Great one, had invaded India in 326 B.C., established the Mauria empire, that introduced the buddhism in the country. Its height happened under the reign of Açoka, time where the first monuments in rock had appeared, of influence Greek, as the palace of Pataliputra, center politician of the kingdom. Among the temples, that if adaptaram to the buddhism professed for the emperor, they are distinguished estupas, funerary monuments, of hemisférica form and that they indicate to be embedded in the place a sacred relic, as great estupa of Sanchi.
This period marked the beginning of the architecture in rock, that imitated religious constructions in wood, already disappeared. The typical form of the Mauria architecture is the excavated Buddhist temple in the rock. The temple of Lomas Rsi, in mountains of Barabar (century III B.C.), represents this phase: to the vestibule, whose decoration imitates the ornato in wood, a rectangular chamber, that leads to one retires to circulate, of vaulted ceiling is followed. The second chamber is estupa. The walls, without decoration, are carefully polishing.
Circular pillars of rock, with capitel campaniforme are also great typical constructions of the Mauria time, that they support animal sculptures symbolic. Most famous of these monuments he is capitel of lions raised in Sarnath, where Buddha nailed its first sermon. With the destruction of the Mauria empire, few decades after the death of Açoka, had blossomed the Sunga dynasties, in the Ganges, and Andhra, in the Southeastern coast (century II B.C. II d.C.)
Period Sunga and Andhra. The masterpiece of the Sunga period is great estupa of Bharhut, in central India (current Madhya Pradesh), that it approximately dates of century II B.C. Other temples (caitya) of this dynasty are of Bhaja and Kondane, close to Bombay, true Buddhist cathedrals, whose interior was divided, for rows of columns, in main ship and lateral sections. In the deep one, of semicircular plant and vaulted ceiling, estupa, main element of the cult is risen. As much is given credit that estupa as the sanctuary has symbolic implications in relation to cosmo.
Great estupa of Sanchi, of the Andhra period (for return of 75 B.C.), has as characteristic main four toranas (porches) profusamente decorated, in a violent contrast with the interior deloused of caitya. The jainas monasteries Udayagiri and Khandagiri, in Orissa, date probably of the start of the Christian age; cultivated in the rock, they had survived to the vicissitudes of history and the subtropical climate.
Kushan period. The high point of the Kushan architecture is the famous temple of Mahabodhi, in Buddh Gaya, originally raised in century II of the Christian age to mark the place where Buddha reached the illumination. The monument suffered to numerous additions and restorations until century XIX. The original form is the rectangle of 6 for 15m, on which if it raises a tower of 55m of height, in form of truncated pyramid (sikhara). A restoration, in century XIX, eliminated the element most important: arcs and pontiagudas vaults in the interior chamber, of origin obviously not-Indiana.
Periods Gupta and Chalukya. In the principle of century IV, the Gupta dynasty banished the Kushan and organized a new empire, with capital in Pataliputra. It is of this period the city of Aihole, that follows a plain different architectural. The Gupta period marks the beginning of the apogee of the Indiana architecture and the diffusion of its more characteristic structure: a temple of square shaped base and a piramidal tower, of lines straight lines or curves and widely decorated with ornaments figurative architectural or.
The main Buddhist temple of the Gupta period is of Ajanta, in the truth a succession of thirty sanctuaries dug in the rock and admired by its rich pictorial decoration. How much the temples hinduístas, oldest known is of Ugayagiri, next to Bhilsa, in the Bhopal (century IV). Excavated in the rock, this temple was imitated in Badami and Pattadkal.
The evolution of the structural temple can be traced from the temple of Vishnu, in Deogarh, of the Chalukya period: simple walled square, with porch of access and false windows, each one shows a relief that represents one of avatares of the deity, everything under weighed sikhara. The majority of the Chalukya monuments the deities are dedicated temples hinduístas, mainly Shiva, Vishnu and Durga, as the caves of Badami and Ellora and the masonry temples of Aihole, Badami and Pattadakal.
Medieval period. The Indiana architecture of the medieval period, base hinduísta, is presented in two styles: the meridional and the northern one. This division if bases on the format of sikhara. Sikhara northern or Aryan, composed of some horizontal layers that if they sharpen in the top of a mountain, exhibits in the apex amalaka (great rock in form of estriado mushroom), what it can be seen in the sanctuaries of Bhudaneswar, in Orissa. Sikhara southern possesss only of three the five horizontal segments, limited for weighed cornices. In the top of a mountain they show, in place of amalaka, a square shaped or octogonal cupola, call stupika. In the temple of Aihole, approximately of year 600, the two types of sikhara occur simultaneously.
In southern India the seven sanctuaries of Mamallapuram, next are still placed the Stepmother, of year 640, celebrity monument approximately excavated, each one in a gigantic penedo and according to models distinct architectural. The temple of the Sacred Mountain (Kailasanatha), in Ellora, excavated in the rock between centuries VIII and X, is one of main monuments of the architecture of the period. Of the same time it is also the dravídico style, whose purer example is the temple of Malegitti Sivalaya, of the beginning of century VIII. Its last great centers had been Vijayanagar and Madura, already during the Muslim invasions. The medieval period is characterized by the development of mandapas, immense halls.
Sri Lanka, Indochina and Indonesia. The temples of Anuradhapura, old Buddhist capital of the Sri Lanka (before Ceilão), had been raised from century III B.C., as well as sanctuaries (dagobas) and estupas. The best examples of the architecture to khmer in Cambodia are the temples of Angkor Wat and Bayon, respectively of centuries XI and XIII.
The great sanctuary of Borobudur, the noblest monument architectural of Java, represents the illustration of cosmo and symbolizes the worlds material and spiritual of Buddha. Its structure if summarizes in the hemisférico profile of gigantic estupa and contains a pyramid in steps (parasada).
Periods Muslim and mogol. The Muslen, who already invaded India to pilhar the rich cities since century VIII, if had established in the north of the country from century XIII. The call tower of Victory, or Qutb Minar, of 73 meters of height, is the landmark of the Muslim architecture in India. It was raised in Delhi, for 1200 return. Its model architectural predominated until century XIX in the regions overwhelmd for the Islã. The mosque of Quwat-ul-Islam was constructed between 1206 and 1290, with remaining portions of material of devastados Hindu temples. The great mosque of Amhed, inspired by the jainas temples of the Abu mount, date of the start of century XIII.
In the principle of century XVI, the mogóis, Islamic group of Persian culture, had invaded and dominated good part of India, led for Baber. The invasion mogol represented the renaissance of the Islamic architecture in the north of India: the styles Persian and Indian, among others, rare fundiram with success in workmanships of refinement and quality. The great fort of Agra (century XVI) and the mosque of Jami Masjid are monument examples of this period, in Fatehpur Sikri.
The expressivo monument of the Indiana architecture of Islamic influence is the Taj Mahal, tomb raised for xá Jahan between 1632 and 1649, for its favourite person or thing, Mumtaz Mahal. In white marble, richly decorated with incrustations of semiprecious rocks and surrounded by magnificent gardens, one of the masterpieces of the world-wide architecture is considered.
Européias traditions and period contemporary. Since century XVI they had started to appear in India constructions inspired by the européia architecture, even so many times incorporated forts native elements. At least some of these workmanships they had great value, over all the baroque architecture of the Portuguese colony of Goa, where if they had raised splendid buildings in the second half of century XVI. Some of these constructions had survived, and enter most famous of them are the church of Good Jesus, started in 1594 and finished in 1605.
In centuries XVIII and XIX diverse constructions of neoclássico style in areas controlled or influenced by the Europeans had been risen. After the British occupation, the traditional architecture practically disappeared, although the attempts of mesclar the traditions autóctones with the occidental techniques. Particularly important it is the project of Le Corbusier for the new capital of the Punjab, Chandigarh, with the contribution of diverse local architects. Other American and European masters had also contributed to create a movement modern architectural, of great vitality, that is in process of adaptation to the local necessities and traditions.