House Architecture and Construction
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The religious restrictions to the representation of figures human beings and animals in the Islã hindered the evolution of techniques as the painting and the sculpture and finished for more transforming the architecture into the developed artistic modality in the Islamic culture.
The Islamic architecture, in virtue of the strong religiosidade better, finds its expression in the mosque, building destined to the communitarian conjuncts. Its origin is the house of Maomé (in the city of Medina), that it consisted of a patio surrounded for walls, with diverse aposentos around. The classic project of the mosque was established already in the first times of the islamismo, in the omíada dynasty. Minarete is composed in one, very high tower with platform of which it the fidiciary offices for the five daily conjuncts almuadem flame; a patio of arches that has, to the center, the source for the abluções; a great room of conjuncts, divided in different ships with columns; e qibla, wall to the deep one of the room where if it finds mihrab, or sanctuary, a niche that indicates to be that one the direction of the city saint of Meca, come back toward which the fidiciary offices must pray. Next to mihrab, the pulpit is located, or to minbar.
Another characteristic aspect of the Islamic architecture is the wealth of the decoration, on the basis of epigráficos reasons (registrations with stretches of the Alcoran in cúfica writing or nasji), vegetables (palms, leves of grapevine and acanto) and geometric (arabesque). The ornamentação still includes, frequently, estalactites in plaster, form of prism and with the arched face. The Islamic architecture if also characterizes for the use of the brick, many times covered of mosaics, estuque or plaster; for the job of multilobated arcs in horseshoe form and; e for the use of the cupola, element of bizantina origin, almost always decorated.
Historical evolution. Of century VII, of when they date the first constructions, done for the dynasty omíada, until century XVIII, beginning of the decay of the Ottoman empire, the Islã raised, in some regions understood between Spain and India, great monument number. In the Syrian and Palestine, the main ones had been the mosque of Omar, in Jerusalem, also known as the Domo of the Rochedo, of octogonal form with exterior decorated in bizantinos mosaics, concluded in 691; e the great Damson plum mosque (705-715), that possuía a great patio with arches in a three of its sides and room of conjunct divided in three ships, all parallel bars to the wall of qibla. In the profane architecture, the palaces of Mshatta and Qasr Amrah had been distinguished, in the Syrian. This last possuía luxurious rooms of bath and was richly decorated with paintings.
With the abássida dynasty, restored in year 750, the Islamic art suffered the influence from Asia. The mausoleums, and the decoration had appeared then if it estilizou. The capital was transferred to Bagdá, in Iraq, where if it adopted an urban tracing of circular form, protected for a double wall. Later, in 838, when the empire started to be desmembrado in independent principalities, the cut if established in Samarra. In the new capital a great mosque was constructed, with ships parallel bars to qibla and one minarete similar to zigurate, beyond some palaces.
In Spain, where if al-Rahman I takes refuge Abd, only survivor of the omíada dynasty, occurred, parallel, a period of great artistic activity, whose center was the city of Córdoba. Most important of the carried through workmanships at the time it is the mosque of the city. Initiate in century VIII, suffered diverse magnifyings throughout the two posterior centuries. The mosque of Córdoba has 19 perpendicular ships to qibla and a system of original construction, in which if they combine columns and arcs in horseshoe with arcs of half point -- what everything indicates, an influence of the visigótica art -- decorated with vaults alternated in red and white. Its mihrab is covered of rich bizantinos tiles, with profusion of epigráficos and vegetal reasons. Another great example of the art of the califado one of Córdoba was the palaciana city of Medina Azahara, constructed for Abd al-Rahman III. In Egypt, that if became independent with the tulúnidas ones, the great mosque of Ibn Tulun was constructed in century IX, in the Cairo; in Túnis, the aglábidas ones had raised the great mosque of al-Qayrawan.
In the period that goes of century XI to the XV, the main Islamic aesthetic conceptions had had origin in Isfahan, with the seldjúcidas, in the north of Africa -- Egypt and Maghreb -- e in the Iberian peninsula, with the fatímidas ones, almorávidas and the nazaritas. The seldjúcidas, nomadic peoples of estepes converted the islamismo who had reunified for some time the Middle East, had established its centers in Isfahan and Tabriz. They had been responsible for spreading of madrasa (species of university in which if they taught to theology and sciences), in general built next to a structuralized mosque and around a patio. The system of madrasas passed to be used in mosques as of Isfahan, concluded for 1130 return, with a central patio and four contiguous rooms, or eyvans, covered for semicircular vaults. The room located to the side of qibla leads to another room with cupola.
Also a new type of minarete appeared at this time, of cylindrical form, supported on a octogonal base, as of the mosque Pará-Mine de Zawara, whose exterior it was decorated with ceramics enameled in geometric reasons. The funerary architecture popularized the squared mausoleum covered with a cupola, as of Sanyar, century XI.
In Egypt, the fatímida dynasty, that governed between centuries X and XI, constructed important mosques, such as of al-Azhar and al-Hakim, in the city of the Cairo. In middle of century XIII, the dynasty of the mamelucos imposed the seldjúcida artistic influence. Its form more characteristic architectural was the mausoleum, whose better example is the funerary monument to the sultão Hassan, of square shaped plant and golden cupola on a octogonal base. In the end of century XI, after the disintegration of the califado one of Córdoba in a series of kingdoms of taifas, the intervention of the almorávidas ones, originary of the south of the Maghreb, allowed a new bloom of the art in the Iberian peninsula and the northwest of Africa.
Two types of structures had characterized the periods almorávida and almôada, of century XI to the XIII, in Morocco and Spain. One encloses the great Moroccan mosques, as of Tinmel and the Hasan, in Rabat, and of Kutubiya, in Marrakech, the all with squared great solids and minaretes. The other type of architecture was created for military ends, as blockhouses and bridges with arcs in horseshoe form. Between these they appear the Oudaia bridge, in Rabat, and the Rabat bridge, in Marrakech.
In the north of Africa, the art did not move very in centuries XIV and XV. The same mosque style continued to be constructed, as the Great Mosque of Argel. The decoration architectural in estuco or sculptured rock was limited generally the elaborated geometric standards, epigráficos subjects and some vegetal reasons.
The last period of the Islamic art in Spain dates of the nazarita kingdom of Granada, established in century XIII. Its more characteristic monument is the Alhambra, palaciana city that perhaps constitutes the hugest monument of the Islamic genius to integrate architecture and nature. It consisted of alcácer, halls for official acts (to mexuar, or room of justice, room of Comares), private area (patio of the Lions, room of the Two Sisters), rooms of banns and wonderful gardens, as of the Generálife.
Since middle of century XIII, when the mongóis had invaded the Pérsia, one registered in the region a significant cultural impulse that if translated the construction of mosques artisticamente and madrasas of seldjúcida style and in the use of well formed cupolas and decorated tiles. The conjunction of mongóis and turcomanos elements was the characteristic of the timúrida period, that transcorreu between centuries XIV and XVI. The capital of the empire was the mythical city of Samarkand, great center cultural politician and of central Asia. Important monuments had been built at the time, such as the mosque-madrasa of Jargird, with central patio and four eyvans, and the blue mosque of Tabriz, Irã, celebrity for its decoration in blue ceramics tiles. The funerary architecture enjoyed of the great prestige between the timúridas ones, that they had constructed in the proper capital the avenue of Shaji-Zindá, tipped for some mausoleums of the imperial family and members of the nobility, with its characteristic cupolas and decoration in tiles.
After the mongóis and of the turcomanos, the sefévidas ones had arrived at the power in the Pérsia, that they had promoted the art popular. The mosques had proliferated then and madrasas of four eyvans e, in the palaciana architecture, was distinguished the palace Ali Qapu, with as walking repleto of columns. At the same time where the bloom of the art between the sefévidas ones occurred, the empire mongol of India construía, in century XI, great and luxurious constructions inspired by the Persian art, as the Taj Mahal, of Agra, mausoleum made for the wife of the emperor, and the Red fort, in Delhi.
From middle of century XV, the Ottoman empire consolidated and its power if it extended for Turkey, Syrian, Egypt, Iraq and the Balcãs, in the Europe. In the empire, that would only enter in decay in century XVIII, the cupolas had been spread out and had been constructed mosques in such a way in rectangular form, with porch in cupola, of bizantina influence, how much with plant in form of “inverted T”. The empire reached the apogee in centuries XV and XVI, when Istambul if became great center cultural politician and. Having the bizantina basilica of Saint Sofia as model, the monumental constructions had proliferated, as the mosques of Suleiman II and Amhed I, in the same city.
The disappearance of the empire mogol of India, that passed the British domain, and the gradual dismemberment of the Ottoman empire had made with that the Islamic art suffered, throughout century XIX, a stagnation process during which it started to try an increasing influence occidental person. This adaptation to the trends of the Ocidente if intensified in middle of century XX, when new schools had integrated occidental techniques to the Muslim architecture. This movement, initiated in Turkey for Sedat Hakki Eldhem and in Egypt for Hassan Fathy, if spread later for Muslim the whole world.