House Architecture and Construction
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As much for its intrinsic aesthetic qualities how much for the marcante influence that would come to exert in the Ocidente, the Japanese architecture is recognized as one of the most important contributions of the Japanese spirit to the universal culture.
Since its primórdios the Japanese architecture disclosed, wants in its religious manifestations, it wants in profane workmanships, and throughout the diverse phases lived for the country, typically national characteristics.
Antecedents. The first examples of Japanese architecture are elementary constructions of circular form that date of the Jomon period, until century III B.C. These constructions had increased of size to the measure that if developed a well structuralized agricultural society, in the Yayoi period, of century III B.C. to century III of the Christian age.
Of the A stage that if gave the name of Tumular or Kofun (century III to century VI), dates immense catacumbas principescas where if they had found clay parts (haniwa) where if see represented models older however typically Japanese architectural, to the side of the sanctuaries xintoístas of Ise and Izumo. They are characterized for the use of the wood, roof of sapé or laths, raised, plain floor anti-symmetrical and adaptation to the natural conditions.
Periods Asuka and Nara (552-794). The buddhism, introduced in the country in 552, revolutionized some plans of the Japanese cultural life, also of the architecture and over all in century VIII, time of strong influence of the China, that, through Korea, became to feel, for example, in the adoption of the symmetrical plan in the construction of the temples, raised on rock bases, encircled of sand and with generous job of the color, in the molds of the Chinese palaces.
The best examples of the Buddhist architecture of the Asuka period can be appreciated in Nara: they are pagodes of Hokki-ji, year 706, and Horyu-ji, 607 (reconstructed in 711), perhaps the oldest preserved structures wooden in the whole world. With the change of the capital for Nara (Heijo-kio), the first designed Japanese city, the activities had increased. Until then, the headquarters of the cut were transferred whenever a sovereign according to died, with what he looked himself to prevent, rule xintoísta, the pollution of the death.
The original plan of the city of Nara obeyed the one of the Chinese capital, Changan: the imperial palace placed it the north, with the streets and avenues interlacing itself it its front. In contrast to Changan, however, Nara it was not a walled city, nor possuía one reserves of hunting for the sovereign.
The Japanese architecture of the period is defined as a more complex version of the Chinese of the Tang period: the temples and its annexes are ampler and the structural fragility of the Asuka architecture is substituted by a system of modilhões (ornatos of sustentation of the ceilings of the cornices, in form of S with different returns, for where they drained waters of rain) placed in the four cantos of the beirais, capable to support greaters tensions (as in pagode eastern of Yakushi-ji, raised in Nara in year 718).
However, optimum example of the architecture of Nara is the Golden Hall of the Todai-ji, in the proper city, that in its more recent form dates of 1705, but that no longer century VIII was enough high to shelter a statue of Buddha with about 16 meters of height.
Heian period (794-1185). Frustrated the attempt to install in Nagaoka the new capital of the country, in 794 it fixed itself in Heian-kio, current Quioto, traced with similar plan to the one of Nara. The esoteric buddhism served of base and inspiration to the biggest constructions of the period: the Enryaku-ji temples, in the mount Hiei, and Kongobuji, in the Koya mount, close to Osaka. To make it difficult the access to the lay members of the buddhism not-esoteric, the esoteric temples, of lesser dimensions and consideravelmente immediate anti-symmetrical, are placed outside of the city, generally in hillsides and mountains or way the forests, with which if they harmonize (pagode of Wall, of century IX).
This same harmony between the nature and the architecture characterizes the final phase of the Heian period, during which the influence resurges of antiqüíssimos native elements, as the use of the not spotted wood and the ceiling of laths of the imperial palace of Quioto, side by side with the Buddhist influence (sanctuary of Itsuku-shima). The style of domestic architecture is born then that corresponds truily to the Japanese taste -- shinden --, of that no example subsistiu. The buildings occupied scenes of gardens with artificial lakes and were made use in linked pavilions for galleries and covered corridors.
Kamakura period (1192-1333). When supervising the reconstruction of the two great temples of Todai-ji and Kofuku-ji, in Nara, destroyed in 1180, Chogen priest introduced new style architectural of Chinese origin, erroneamente known in Japan for tenjikuyo (“style of the indian”). Its characteristics, however, had not avenged, given to the enormous necessary wooden amount its constructions, simple and destitute of ornatos, as Amide-of, of Jodo-ji, raised in 1192 for proper Chogen priest.
Better luck had the Karayo (“style of China”), popularized with aid of the zen-buddhism. More elegant and decorative, the Karayo had a typical example in the Kencho-ji temple, raised in Kamakura in 1253.
Muromachi period (1338-1573). Despite the Karayo style continued popular, the concentration of all the power politician at the hands of some warlike families generated new forms architectural, with the division of the spacious rooms of the domestic architecture of style shinden in lesser aposentos. For the same time the style made its appearance shoin. The basic unit of the house started to be shoin, formed for an alcove (tokonoma), decorative shelves and they go endowed with window, with a writing-desk (Togudo de Jisho-ji, of 1486, in Quioto).
Some of the most beautiful Japanese gardens, whose sprouting occurred in delayed the Heian period, date of the Muromachi period. It was treated to reproduce, in reduced scale, the nature, integrated to the complex domestic architectural. Another type of garden is of origin zen: it does not use the water and it represents the world symbolically in accordance with the point of view zen. Muso Soseki was one of the paisagistas greaters zen. Its “dry” gardens of Saihoji and Daiseinin, in Quioto, are what of better it existed in the sort.
Momoyama period (1573-1603). The introduction of the firearms in the country, in middle of century XVI, revolutionized the military architecture and stimulated the secular architecture with the construction of numerous palaces and castles -- as of Momoyama, that gave name to the period -- heavily strenghtened (Azuchi castle, built in 1576). The style shoin was reelaborado in workmanships as the chambers of guests of the Kojoin, one subtemplo of the Onjo-ji, in Quioto (constructed in 1601). Meanwhile, it appeared new form architectural related with the ceremony of the tea: a small room, or sukiya, of that the Taian room of the Myoki-an de Quioto, constructed is example in the end of century XVI.
Period Edo and Tokugawa (1603-1868). Although the religious architecture had decayed in Japan, the ornamentação architectural blossomed, at the same time where the military architecture and the domestic became requintadas. A new concept of would garden is represented by the gardens of the palace of Shugakuin, where the sight of surrounding mountains functions as aesthetic element.
Modern period (from 1868). With the modernization of the country and the introduction of new materials of construction, the Japanese architecture was oriented for new routes. The public buildings had felt the impact of the influence occidental person, but the residential constructions had remained fidiciary offices to the tradition and perfect-in, mainly in what it says respect to the light materials, the direction of space and the flexible use of the internal areas.
The modern architecture occidental person, with its single threads, found in Japan a propitious land. An armed concrete soon was introduced, mainly after the great earthquake of Tokyo, in 1923, and Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, Mies van to give to Rohe and other great occidental architects had marked the formation of the young Japanese architects in century XX, After World War II, Refers to Kenzo, perhaps the most known Japanese architect in the second half of the century, Sakasura Junzo, Kosaka Hideo, Maekawa Kunio, Sato Takeo and others, however retaking the tradition national, however adopting the style in vigor in the Ocidente, had created new structures that had reed-echo even though in occidental countries.
Sakasura Junzo, pupil of Le Corbusier, constructed diverse note buildings, as the Museum of Modern Art of Kamakura (1951) and a station-magazine in Tokyo (1967). Maekawa Kunio, also pupil of Le Corbusier, projected the Japanese pavilions of the World-wide Exposition of Brussels (1958) and of the World-wide Fair of New York (1964-1965). In the Cultural Center of Saitama (1966), it entirely opened new perspectives for the project of communitarian centers.