architecture Jônica Order
House Architecture and Construction
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The Jônica order has antecedents in the architecture of the Assyrians, hititas and of other peoples of Lesser Asia. B.C. for much city-state and the colonies was spread in century V Greeks in Sicily. In Atenas, it was to result in a characteristic style, the attic-jônico.
In contrast of the Dórica column, the Jônica does not seat directly on platforms, but it has a base - plinth - that assumes diverse forms. The advantage of the plinth is that all the set gains greater the slightness. The shaft, in turn, sharpens a bit in direction to capitel. The column is elegant not alone because she is higher in relation to the diameter (corresponds up to the 9 times diameter, while the Dórica does not pass of 5 times and stocking) but also for the fact to possess greater number of caneluras - frisos vertical lines of the column - of 24 the 44 (in the Dórica they are of 16 the 20). Moreover, the caneluras Jônicas do not finish in alive edges, but they are bevelled, that is, between one and another one it has a small risk, helping the column to seem more skis. Capitel is ornado with drawings in spiral called scrolls; between capitel and the column, made a worked gullet, has another type of oval ornament, the gorjal.
Also arquitrave distinguishes well the two orders: in the Dórica column, the form of this element corresponded to old bars wooden; in the Jônica, arquitrave acquires forms much more searched carefully, presenting three horizontal bands. The greater of them - the last one - is ornada by a pearl row; I emphasize it that it is followed is, in turn, decorated for a continuous low-relief series. Finally, the entablamento - crown of the building - equivalent to less than 1/4 of the height of the column becomes the construction lightest.
What the dórico has of sober, the jônico has of gracious. Capitel jônico is seemed the type of feminine hairdo then fashionable at the time, also existing certain similarity enters the line of the Jônica column and a woman suit, the quintão.
The Jônica construction, of bigger dimensions, if supported in a double row of columns, estilizadas a little more, and equally presented a acanelado shaft and a solid base. Capitel culminated in two gracious columns, and the frisos were decorated in high-relives.
The Erecteion de the Atenas, perhaps most beautiful of the jônicos temples, raising in honor of a lendário Athenian hero called Erecteu, finished its construction in 406 B.C., being located on the Acrópole of the city.
In the interior of the temple, the most sacred objects of art were kept. In the south part of the construction it has a porch, of koré or cariátides (maidens, in Greek), supported, not for columns, but for six statues of young women with baskets to the head.
The temple of Atenéia, “Nike Aptera”, was constructed in 429 B.C. in homage the victorious Atenéia. Inside of the temple of Atenéia, the athenians had placed the statue of the winged victory, but, for she saw of the doubts, had cut the wings to it, so that she did not leave flying the temple. The temple was eregido in the Acrópole, remained in good condition until century XVIII, when the Ottoman Turks - that they had conquered Greece - had used to advantage the place to store powder, using rocks of the building to provide the deposit.
More ahead, in the classic period (centuries V and II B.C.), the architecture Greek reached its maximum point. To the two known styles already (dórico and jônico) one another one, the coríntio came to add itself, that if characterized for one capitel typical whose extremity was decorated for leves of acanto.