House Architecture and Construction
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The Indiana art started if to expand from the Average Age and more found its respected mimic in the neighboring kingdom of the Khmer, in Cambodia. The artists of this kingdom had bet, however, in more rigid representations, in general way strict symmetrical and deloused of the sensualismo and erotismo of the model. Special relevance had had the piramidais temples, that they had been spread out of there for the remaining portion of Asia, and relives, of less loaded surfaces, pparently due to lack of knowledge technician of its sculptors.
They are the three basic constructions of the Indiana architecture that can be transferred of practically identical form for the neighboring kingdom of the Khmer: stupa or temple, caitya or sanctuary and vihara or monastery.
Stupa had origin as funerary monument of rock, whose plant was half-spherical, with cupola, mirante and railing. With the buddhism, it was evolving as representation architectural of cosmo. The access it was done by means of an arc, or carries, richly decorated with sculptures.
When hinduísmo recouped importance, stupa was substituted by the temples of rectangular plant. In full Average Age, vimana, sikhara and gopura would appear the called piramidais temples, of exuberant and pompous decoration. They more constituíriam the spread out tipologia in the Asian continent.
Throughout the centuries, the peoples of the subíndico archipelago and the Cambodian peninsula would go absorbing the religion and aesthetic the Indians. In the same way, the Khmeriana art, monumental and for times next to the Chinese art, appears in temples and sanctuaries. The sanctuaries and the monasteries were dug in the rocks of mountains and the façades, decorated with relives and sculptures. The access if made for a giant arches.
The art of the Extreme East, rich and varied in its manifestations, discloses, in China and Japan, strait relationship with the religion, being at the same time echo of the numerous Chinese dynasties and the guardiões of the culture (bonzos) Japanese. The permanent bond between both the countries determined the influence of the first one on as, since centuries V and VI until the XIX, in all you discipline them artistic. One of the factors that they had determined this narrow cultural relation was the religion, more necessarily the buddhism. The Chinese, the principle taoístas and confucionistas, had started to absorb the Buddhist beliefs, after the expansion of the empire grupta (Indian) in century IV, being definitive the instauration of this religion during the T'ang dynasty (century IV).
As much the Chinese architecture how much the Japanese had had and continues having an eminently functional character, not only as for the habitability, but also to the concept of integration to cosmo or harmonization with the nature.
For the Chinese, the architecture would have to be a rejoinder of the universe. The square shaped forms, that represent the land, and the rounded off ones, that they symbolize the sky, are agreed in such way that as many temples how much pagodes shows similar appearance in attention to these norms. Imponent pagodes Chinese would be the consequence of stupas Indian and later the origin of all Chinese and Japanese monumental architecture.
In the generality, the Chinese constructions that had more received attention had been the temples, located on a terrace with specific orientation, in view of the stations of the year. The example most interesting is of the Forbidden City, constructed for the emperor at the beginning it century XV.
The Temple of the Sky, situated in the Forbidden City of Pequim, is a summary of the trends of the Chinese architecture. It joins circulating, the sky, with the three levels of bending ceilings for top, an efficient protection against the negative energy. The typical roofs of terracota, with its tips for top, beyond being a complex accomplishment, symbolize in China the union between celestial and the terrestrial one.
Although the permanent bond between the China countries and Japan had determined the influence of the first one on as, since centuries V and VI until the XIX, in all you discipline them artistic, with the time the Japanese artists had forged its proper image, distanciada naturalist and of the Chinese symbolism.
Japan received the buddhism from the hands of the Chinese during the Nara period (645-784). The first Chinese temples, pagodes had been spread out thus, inspired in stupas Hindu that they would be, later, the origin of all Chinese and Japanese monumental architecture.
In Japan, Chinese architectural for the Buddhist temples was persisted in the tradition, what it did not occur with the profane architecture.
One of the constructions most typical of Japan is rikyu, created for Kobori Ensnu, for accomplishment of the ceremony of the tea. One is about a house where the volume and the simplicity of main forms are persogens. The used materials are the ones that entorno natural offers, in the general wood and clay, and in some cases also the copper and rush, mainly in the roofs.
With the time, rikyu had started to serve demodelo for the particular habitations for the capacity of transformation of the space that its light sliding thick partition walls offered. Constructed in way to a garden of perennial plants, rocks and water, that invite to the meditation, rikyu continues being nowadays one of the constructions of bigger influence in the architecture contemporary occidental person.
The Greeks had been the first realistic artists of history, that is, first the a if to worry in representing the nature such which it is. To make this, it was basic the study of the ratios, in whose base if it finds consecrated according to which maximum the man is the measure of all the things. Four great periods in the evolution can be distinguished from the art Greek: the geometric one (centuries IX and VII B.C.), the archaic one (VII and VI B.C.), the classic (V and IV B.C.) and the hellenistic one (of century III to the I B.C.)
In the call geometric period, the art if restrigiu to the decoration of varied utensils and amphoras. These objects were painted with circular and semicircular reasons, made use simetricamente. The technique applied in this work was inherited of the cultures cretense and micênica. Passed much time, from century VII B.C., during called perído archaic, the architecture and the sculpture had tried a notable development thanks to the Mediterranean influence of these and other cultures.
Also they had weighed the study and the measurement of old megaron micênico, central room of the palaces of Micenas from which they had materialize the styles architectural of what it would be the traditional Greek temple.
Between centuries V and IV B.C., the art Greek consolidates its definitive forms. In the sculpture, it was added the naturalismo and to the ratio of the figures the concept of dynamism relfetido in the statues of atlestas as the Discóbolo de Miron and the Doríforo de Policleto. In the architecture, on the other hand, the perfectioning of the optics (perspective) and the balanced fusing of the jônico and dórico style brought as resulted the Partenon de Atenas, classic model par excellence of the architecture of this time.
In century III, during the hellenistic period, the culture Greek if spreads out, mainly thanks to the conquests and expansion of Great Alenxandre, for all the basin of the Mediterranean and Lesser Asia.
It does not remain doubt of that the temple was one of the legacies most important of the art Greek to the Ocidente, having its origins to be looked for in megaron miscênico, I retire of sufficiently simple morphology, although to be the main room of the palace of the governor, being this, in the principle, the project that marked cânones of the construction Greek.
It was from the perfectioning of this basic form that if configured the Greek temple as knows it today. In the principle, the used materials were adobe - for the walls - and the wood - for the columns. But, from century VII B.C. (archaic period), they had been falling in disuse, being substituted by the rock. This innovation allowed that a new row of columns in the external part (peristilo) of the construction was added, making with that the temple got a profit in what touches to the monumentalidade. The first styles had appeared then architectural: the dórico, to the south, on the back of the Peloponeso, and the jônico, the east.
The dóricos temples were in general low and massive. The thick columns that gave sustentation to them did not make use of base, and the shaft had acanelada form. Capitel, in general very simple, finished in a convex frame equino call. The columns gave support to a entablamento (system of cornices) formed by one arquitrave (inferior part) and one I emphasize of tríglifos (acanelada decoration) larded of métopas.
The Jônica construction, of bigger dimensions, if supported in a double row of columns, estilizadas a little more, and equally presented a acanelado shaft and a solid base. Capitel culminated in two gracious columns, and the frisos were decorated in high-relives. More ahead, in the classic period (centuries V and IV B.C.), the architecture Greek reached its maximum point. To the two styles already known lode if to add umoutro, the coríntio, that if characterized for umcapitel typical whose extremity was decorated for leves of acanto.
The forms had been if estilizando still more and added one third row of columns. Partenon of Atenas is the most evident illustration of this shining period Greek architectural.
At the time of the hellenistic hegemony (century III B.C.), the construction, that conserved the basic forms of the classic period, reached the maximum point of suntuosidade. The columns of capitéis richly decorated supported frisos worked in relief, showing a hardly superable elegance and a work.
In the Greek world, the styles were identified in accordance with to the orders architectural that regulated all the workmanship of the artists. The Dórica order is express for a column simple, with deep caneluras, without base and encimada by one capitel. The Jônica is finer and gracious, it has canelada column and capitel with scrolls. The Coríntia order, in turn, has column canelada and capitel profusamente decorated with foliages well, what it makes it sufficiently different of the others.
There, but a time we see as clothes if it relates with the lines of the architecture. Peplo dórico (to the left), as the column of the same style, is sober - severe even. The jônico quitão (to the right), in contrast, is presented well more has taken and esguio - following the style of the column that characterizes the respective order architectural.
That one that if revealed not only in India, but also in the Cashmere, Ceilão, Nepal, Tibet and Indonesia must be understood as Indiana art. The model, however, was forged in the country that gives the name to it and was spread out from the neighboring kingdom, the Khmer, for excessively. The origins of the Indiana art retrace to the invasions of the Aryans, in century VII B.C., that after devastar the civilization of the valley of Going had imposed its language, the religious sânscrito, and its writings, the Prohibitions. With the dynasty of the Mauryas a period of cultural esplendor started.
The buddhism, although subsequent to the brahmanism and contemporary of the jainismo, established the principles of the Indiana art throughout all history, since its sprouting. The necessity of diffusion of this religious movement led to the adoption of definitive parameters of representation, that later had been extended to the other religions. The Indiana art also received influence Persian, mainly in the cuts, under the reign of Asoka (274-237 B.C.).
The call classic period started with the kings gruptas, that they had notavelmente revitalized notavelmente the painting and the sculpture and had renewed the forms architectural, retaking side the Indiana tradition, leaving the buddhism.
The first sample of the Indiana architecture was the construction of buildings of bricks, to the time that if raised structures wooden. Although these last ones have disappeared throughout the centuries, they had been imitated by rock constructions that still are of foot. The primitive classic time B.C. started in the year of 250, during the reign of Asoka, that loaned to the buddhism the imperial sponsorship. Very common at this time they are stupas (small temples to keep to the dedicated relics the Buddha) and chaityas (ruprestes temples), among which they are distinguished the Gran Stupa de Sanchi, initiated for emperor extended Asoka and at posterior times, and the Chaitya de Karli, of the beginning of century II.
Stupas had appeared in the times of the great Asoka. Expressions maximum of the búdica architecture are, representing at the same time the great overturned cuia of Buddha, the hemisphere of the world that turns on its wheels and the egg where it leaves the life.
From century V, ocaso of the buddhism occurred, with the ascension of hinduísmo and the jainismo. The inherent style to these religions if had mixed to give to place to the elaborated reasons that constitute the mark of the Indiana architecture and that they appear cut in the rocks, forming sanefas. The examples most important are in the hill of Parasnath, in Bihar; in the Abut mount in Abu Rajasthan; e in Strunjaya, Gujarat.
The Islamic architecture of India comes since century XIII until our days. It belongs the famous mausoleum of Goal Gundadh (1660), in Bijapur, state of Mysore; the tower Qutb Minar (century XI), with five floors of rock and marble, in Delhi, capital; e the mosque of Jami Masjid (1423), in Ahmadabad.
The phase mongol of the go-Islamic style, between centuries XVI and XVII, fomented the use of luxurious materials, as the marble. The exemploculminante of this style is the mausoleum of the Taj Mahal, in Agra.
The Taj Mahal, situated in Agra, is the most famous of all old buildings of India and one of monuments most representative of the Indiana art. It was constructed by about 20.000 workers, of 1631 the 1648, as mausoleum for Arjumand Banu Bagam, favourite wife of the emperor mongol Shah Jahan, century XVII. This enormous building concluded with cupolas was constructed in go-Islamic style, where if it used white marble and incrusted egg yolks. In each
esquina has one minarete and the exterior walls are adronadas with tickets of the Alcoran, the sacred book of the Muslen. The bodies of the emperor and its wife lie in one cripta.
Since century XVIII, the construction of great buildings in India has kept the proper historical forms or if submitted to the European models introduced by the British.