Aztec Mayan architecture
House Architecture and Construction
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The civilizations most advanced of Central America had been the Mayan and the Aztec. The Mayans had established it the north of the peninsula of Yucatán and had constructed some city-sanctuaries, while the Aztecs if had established in islets of the lake of Texcoco, where had built the capital of its empire, Mexico-Tenochtitlán. The Mayan empire had well-defined a state and social organization, in which if they differentiated social classrooms and professions. Same organization was this that the Aztec belligerents adaptaram when arriving at the valley of Mexico.
The most developed cientificamente they had cientificamente and intellectually been the Mayans: they possuíam a system of hieroglífica writing and had reached great advances in astronomy and the mathematics. Its calendar of 365 days showed more accurate than the used one then in the Europe. Moreover, already they knew the zero. Part of its knowledge was absorbed by the toltecas, that in turn had transmitted them for the remaining portion of the cultures of the valley of Mexico and for the Aztecs, who had obtained to win the cities of the Tríplice Alliance and had established thus its empire.
Both the peoples had left the certification of its largeness in workmanships colossal architectural, represented for temples and palaces in piramidais terraces, as well as in relives and decorative sculptures and its sumptuous paintings and objects.
The temples and palaces of the civilizations Mayan and Aztec reflect the knowledge technician of its constructors and craftsmen. The Mayan temples, mainly of the classic period, denote the influence of the toltecas. The Aztec temples had almost rectangular bases that, superece of fishes, gave to form the spaced out pyramids, crowned for a platform, with the corresponding rock of sacrifices. The decoration, with symbolic figures of antropomorphus and animal deities, completed the picture.
The Mayan architects had implemented certain new elements that, together with a technological advance, had implied a estilística differentiation: they had constructed to its ceilings with the salient calls false vaults or, formed for the overlapping of silhares of rock. How much to the decoration, they had used estuque of whitewash to make frames between ceilings and walls, that covered with low-relives.
The Mayan palacianas residences possuíam galleries made use in form of square in a platform. It was entered in the palace for a situated colossal staircase in the front of the openings of the central gallery. How much to the Aztec palaces few details exist, since they practically had been destroyed.
Without the knowledge of the wheel, the load metal and animals, the construction of the Mayan and Aztec sanctuaries must have very been penosa. The monumentalidade of these centers still haunts today all its visitors. The Aztec constructions were still more monumental that the Mayans. Example of this is the Pyramid of the Sun, located in Teotihuacán, old capital of the toltecas, that had transformed it into an important social and religious center.
The spaced out pyramids and towers are the expression basic architectural of the Mayans and the Aztecs. In its top the sacrifices and the offerings to deuses were carried through. Uxmal, or Yucatán, is the centers most representative of Mayan civilization e, in Uxmal, meets it Pyramid of the Advinho.