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Parallel to the classic renaissance, it was developed in Rome, of the year of 1520 even for 1610 return, an artistic movement moved away conscientiously from the model of the classic antiquity: the mannerism (maniera, in Italian, means way). An evident trend for the exaggerated estilização and a whim in the details start to be its mark, thus surpassing the rigid classic lines of cânones. Therefore, mannerism is an Italian style of century XVI, characterized for the plasticity of the exaggerated, whose positions are, almost always, forced figures, using themselves of the colors in arbitrary way and treating the space to unreal way, creating, with frequency, dramatical effect.
Some historians consider the mannerism a transistion between the renaissance and the baroque one, while others prefer to see it as a style properly said. The certainty, however, is that the mannerism is a consequência of a classic renaissance that enters in decay. The artists if see debtors to leave in search of elements that allow them to renew and to develop all the abilities and techniques acquired during the renaissance
One of its principal sources of inspiration is the reinante religious spirit in the Europe at that moment. Not only the Church, but all the Europe was divided the Reformation de Lutero after. Carlos V, after defeating the troops of the the pope, pillages and destroys Rome. The desolation and the uncertainty reign. The great empires start if to form, and the man already is not main and the only one measured of the universe.
Painters, architects and sculptors are impelled to leave Rome for other cities. Using itself the same elements of the renaissance, but now with a total different spirit, they create a strange art of labyrinths, spirals and ratios, that are, without a doubt, the inconfundível mark of the Maneirista style. More ahead, this art would finish cultivated in all the great européias cities.
The Maneirista architecture gives priority to the immediate longitudinal construction of churches, with longer spaces of what wide, with the main cupola on transepto, leaving of side immediate centered, the typical ones of the classic renaissance. However, it can be said that the true changes that this new style introduced are not only reflected in the construction in itself, but also in the distribution of the light and the decoration.
Dark ships, illuminated only of different angles, choirs with stairs in spiral, that to a great extent do not take the place none, produce an atmosphere of rare singularity. Guirlandas of fruits and flowers, proflied railings of capricious figures are the decoration most characteristic of the mannerism. Snails, shells and scrolls cover walls and altars, remembering an exuberant forest of rock that confude the sight.
In the profane architecture phenomenon occurs accurately the same. In the rich palaces and houses of field, the convex forms that allow constraste between light and shade prevail on the disciplined square of the renaissance. The decoration of interiors richly decorated and the afrescos of the vaults crown this capricious and fine style, that, more than what to mark the transistion between two times, express the renewal necessity.