House Architecture and Construction
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The architecture of the Mesopotâmia used in its periods of training initial cooked adobe bricks, malleable, but little resistant, what it explains the high degree of consuming of the joined constructions. The workmanships most representative of the construction in the Mesopotâmia - zigurates or temples in tower form - are of the time of the first sumérios peoples and its form was kept without alterations for the Assyrians. In the reality, zigurates (lateral pyramids with steps and slopes crowned by a temple), superece of fishes that formed a type of tower of spaced out faces, divided in some chambers were about constructions.
Zigurate of the city of Ur is one of that if they conserve in better been, thanks to Nabucodonosor II, that it commanded its reconstruction later that the acádios had destroyed it. The temple consisted of seven floors and the sanctuary was in the terrace. It is given credit that in the reconstruction it was tried to copy the famous Tower of Babel, today destroyed. The access to the last floor was made for interminable and narrow staircases that encircled the walls. The temple was dedicated to the Nannar god and the wife of king Nabucodonosor, Ningal.
Total constructed with cooked bricks and straw, great zigurate of Ur still keeps of foot its magnifícia escalinata. Its imponent figure in way to the plain of the city transforms it into the social and religious center.
The aquemênida monumental architecture retook the Babylonian forms and Assyrians with the Egyptian monumentalidade and the Greek dynamism. The first palaces of Passárgada, of Ciro, the Great one (559 B.C. - 530 B.C.), possuíam rooms of double row of columns acaneladas with capitéis in form of bull head, of Jônica influence. To center the power, Dario (522 B.C. - 486 B.C.) transformed Susa and administrative and respectively religious Persépolis into capitals. Its palaces, workmanships of the eastern renaissance, had been the last witnesses of the old eastern architecture.
The palace of Dario, in Persépolis, is a mixture of all the styles produced for the old architecture. With this, the aquemênidas kings intended to make look like an image of universality and largeness. When conquering the Persian capital, Great Alexander destroyed its palace, but the influence of this old culture arrived to supplant the Greek one at some times of its reign.
As for the tombs, the aquemênidas monarchs, who had not followed the zoroástica tradition to display its corpses to the robbery birds, ordered to excavate sumptuous funerary monuments in the sacred mountain rocks. One of the known tombs more is of Dario I, in the hillside of the Husseim-Kuh mount. Its façade imitates the vestibule of a palace and is crowned with the record of the god Ahura Mazda. This was the model followed later in the necrópolis.
The splendid aquemênidas tombs Dos Reis in the desert still today despertam the admiration of everybody. Grooving in the rock, they also combine elements architectural of the diverse cultures of the old world.