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Prehistoric architecture

prehistoric architecture

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House Architecture and Construction


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If it cannot speak of a Prehistoric architecture in the artistic direction, although its functional character. First homo sapiens was taken refuge in the places that the nature offered to them, being able to be in openings in the rocks, caves, grottos to the foot of mountains or even in the high one of them. Later they would start to construct shelters with skins of animals that hunted or with vegetal staple fibres of the trees of the immediacy, that had learned to weave, or then combining both the materials.
In the end of the neolithic period and beginning of the age of bronze it only is that the first constructions appear of rock, mainly enters the peoples of the Mediterranean and of the Atlantic coast. However, as these colossal monuments had the function of temple or mortuárias chambers, if not treating to housings, its advent did not improve the habitation conditions.

In the primórdios of History, Egyptians and sumérios already made use of the basic elements of an artistic architecture. In palaces and temples, the babilônios, hititas and Persians had taken the architecture to a majestical level. But they had been the Greeks who had surpassed the eastern art and Egyptian with a creative genius who until today can be admired in the Partenon de Atenas and other vestiges.

Deuses Greek was not separate of the men. They coexisted them and they took by loan its feições. By this reason, the temples were constructed more as housings of deuses that as worship places. Clay sculptures and small models, dated of 1.000 years before Christ and discovered by the archaeologists, show that the first temples were similar to the huts of the Greeks.
To erect its monuments, the men of the time had probably started for raising a column, in honor of a god or an important event. These prehistoric monuments were rocks, cravadas vertically in the ground, to the sufficiently great times (megalito called menhir). For the weight of these rocks, some of more than three tons, give credit that they could not have been carried without the knowledge from the handspike.
These rocks (the menhirs) had given origin to the columns. Later one perceived that, using three elements, it was possible to construct. Thus dólmen was born, in form of table, or the trilito (three rocks), formed for two columns that supported one arquitrave. A series of trilitos made the colunata.

Dólmen or covered gallery, species of runner who facilitated the access to a tomb, was of great importance in the history of the architecture because in it if the art of construction practised for the old Greeks baseiava. The principle of the columns and arquitrave was used to support the arc of the doors and windows, being this the way for construction of the huts to the temples most majestical. The two vertical columns called jambs; the column overlapped in arc or vault, dintel.

In the first houses, arquitrave - generally wooden or rock - supported dintel of the door of entrance and the small windows. To shelter the statues of deuses, it was thought about a surplus, advanced porch, as much to receive the multitude of fidiciary offices as to engrandecer the dwelling of deuses. This salient porch - pronau - was supported for a pair of columns and was becoming rich it the few until becoming indispensable a decorative element.

Of two columns, pronau evolved for a series of columns, later two series, in inferior plan to the main room of the temple - the cell - whose purpose was to be able to support a bigger ceiling. Another porch in the posterior part of the temple, epistódomo added then. Finally, the temple entirely was encircled by a colunata, peristilo. This colunata allowed the construction of bigger buildings, because, beyond the columns, also the internal walls supported the ceiling and the salient beiral protected against rain the adobe walls.

In the building oldest, the colunata and all the other parts were made not of marble, but of strong trunks wooden. To resist the time, it was necessary to use the rock. However the Greeks desired to conserve the drawings of its temples. Therefore, about 650 B.C., appears the first temples of accurately sculptured, placed rock as in the old buildings wooden. Few temples had arrived to conserve per some centuries its columns wooden. In general, as they ruined, they went being substituted for other equal ones, however of rock.

The order architectural, used expression for the Greek artists, assigned the set of the elements that composed the construction. According to ratios and decorative characteristics of these elements, mainly of the columns, defined then the different orders (dórica, jônica, coríntia and other orders).

Partenon de Atenas

The Pártenon, célebre temple of the dórica order and the greater of the Acrópole de Atenas, was constructed in century V B.C. (between 438 years 447 and B.C.) and dedicated the Atenea Parthenos, one of the mythology goddesses most important Greek. In mythology Roman, it arrived to be identified with the goddess Press, also known as Atenéia Visors. The temple was projected for architects Ictinos de Mileto and Calícrates, even so its conception is of certain related form the figure of the Fídias sculptor.

It entirely had in the interior of the temple of Partenon a statue of the Atena goddess, made of gold and ivory, much more high that a man, but that nothing remained, beyond models in clay that its worshippers kept, or of the descriptions that had left the travellers.

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