House Architecture and Construction
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The Renaissance was initiated in Italy, particularly in Florença, and was preceded by a transistion phase, that, for the ends of century XIII, already gradually went substituíndo the Gótica art. It was, over all, an urban phenomenon, product of the cities that had blossomed in the center and the north of Italy, as Florença, Ferrara, Milan and Venice, result of a period of great economic and demographic expansion of centuries XI and XIII. The main traces of the renaissance had been the imitation of the classic forms of the greco-roman antiquity and the concern with the profane life, the humanismo and the individual.
The fiorentino Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) was who presented the new renascentista conception in the architecture. It assimilates, during long time, the classic forms and Góticas and adaptara them it its time, building the churches of the Espirito Santo, of Are Lourenço and the cupola of the Cathedral of Saint del Fiore, in Florença. However, it was not at the time of Brunelleschi that the renascentista architecture reached its culminating point, was a little later, in the first half of century XVI. Also it was not in Florença, where it is born, but in Rome, that reached its fullness.
In Rome, during all the first half of century XVI - the High Renaissance -, a talentoso architect as Giuliano de Sangallo (1445-1516) joined its genius to the one of the painter Rafael Sanzio (1483-1520) for, together, to direct the works of the Basilica of Is Peter.
Still in Rome, Bramante architect, whose true name is Donato D' Agnolo (1444-1514), all created an original type of vault for the Church of Saint Maria of the Favours, and still he gave lições to the sculptor, painter and architect Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564). Vignola - as if it called Giocomo Barocchio artisticamente (1507-1573) - built the Church of Jesus, who, for the movement of its lines and the abundance of adornments, already prenunciava the baroque one, style that invigorated in the following century.
Although the center was Rome, the renascentista architecture was not restricted to the old city. In Mântua, the architect Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472), treated author of one - Of Re Aedificatoria (the Art To build), where he defines the beauty as harmony and ratio -, looked for to decide the conflict immediate enters the directional church and the immediate central church, adding a ship to a central structure, in the Church of Saint Andres.
Reinvidica Alberti in its Of Re Aedificatoria that if keeps a standardized style in the façades of the buildings and that its height is to regulate, to get a prettier and harmonious city, in clearly a ressurgimento of classic urbanism.
In the north of Italy, Andrea Palladio (1518-1580) carried through a so important and original work that finished influencing the English architecture them centuries XVII and XVIII.
All they were dedicated, over all, to the construction of religious constructions, of which most ambitious it is, without a doubt, the Cathedral of Is Peter, in Rome. It was initiated by Bramante in 1506, continued for Michelangelo, added for Carlos Maderno (1556-1629) and decorated of external columns for Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini (1598-1680).
The two forms architectural - Gótica and renascentista - had coexisted more than during two hundred years, after what of certain they would be eclipsarred by the baroque one. If in the principle they rivaled between sí, then they had more started to complete itself. The adornments, the decorative elements, the form of the Góticas columns had disappeared, for the renascentista decoration. however, many of the great renascentistas workmanships could not have appeared without the knowledge of the technique of the gótico.
The ogival arc or in tip is typical of the gótico style and allowed to support vaults high.
The renascentista arc, in contrast of the gótico arc, had the curvilinear form, of pure inspiration classic Roman.
Beam the Gótica column, consisting of pillars, had to serve of sustentáculo to the structure of the vault.
The renascentista, simple column, with coríntios capitéis, was used in the construction of porches and arches.
In the Góticas vaults, ogivais arcs meet in the high one and if they support in columns: it is the vault of ribbings.
The renascentista bóbada one still has the form of a semicircle forming a smooth ceiling or in pictures.
The Gótica window, high and narrow, has colorful vitrais and sufficiently pontiagudos frontões.
The window renascentista, square shaped and ampler than the Gótica, has the transparent and colorless glass, giving bigger clarity.
In short, for the Renaissance adentro, what it prepondered in the religious constructions and laypeople of Italy was the renascentista style, but the technique of the Gótica construction was of great value for the facts of the great Italian architects.
renascentista architecture in the remaining portion of the Europe
For the same time (of century XV to the XVI) it was developed, it are of Italy, a style mixing architectural, combination of the renascentista and gótico. The first introduced renascentistas elements in the constructions of the European countries, mainly in the ones of the northern Europe, had been the decoration reasons. Later, for 1540 return, the architecture in these places started to be felt inspired directly in the classic sources.
It appeared then, in France, a inconfundível renascentista architecture, whose better examples are the internal façade of the Museum of the Louvre, workmanship of Pierre Lescot (1510-1578), and the Castle of Anet, project of Philibert Delorme (1515-1570). The Frenchmen had been resistant in accepting artistic the innovations deriving of Italy and, only in century XVI, consequência of the presence of many Italian artists in the cut of Francisco I, he is that they had started to adopt them.
Accurately in the French castles - over all of Blois and of Fontainebleau - the classic influence is more excellent. In England, to the constructions indubitavelmente Góticas, as the University of Oxford and Cambridge and the Library of Samuel Pepys, new constructions had been added, of clear românica inspiration.
In Germany, the Italian renascentista influence was introduced slowly. The German construction was remained faithful to the Gótica tradition, but still thus the buildings of the first half of century XVI present a rich ornamental superstructure, with renascentistas decorative reasons. Although the German architecture to remain itself entailed to the gótico past, several of its artists had been capable to afundir the new medieval inheritance with the aesthetic one. This mixture - Gótica plant, renascentistas ornatos - is verified mainly in the secular constructions, in more harmonious way in the magnificent castles of Heidelberg and Trogau. In the churches, the traditional Góticas lines are remained.
In Portugal, the gótico entered into an alliance it mouros elements, preludiando the renascentista Portuguese style known as manuelino, name derived from the sovereign Manuel, the Happy one. The Spanish architects had interpreted the renaissance to its way: the simplicity and the harmony of balance of the Italian buildings had disdained, and, to the side of renascentistas ornaments, they used with profusion and fancy Arab reasons, over all in the ornamentação of churches and palaces. As its work he was similar to the workmanships of a silversmith (platero, in Spaniard), this style received the name from plateresco. Its more typical examples meet in Toledo (Hospital of Santa Cruz), in some palaces of Castile and célebre University of Salamanca.
To the south of Spain, in Andalusia, the architecture was more sober, with a harmonious structure and a decoration in coríntio style. The cathedrals of Málaga, Jaén and Granada prove this allegiance to cânones classic. E in the Europe occidental person the Florentine artistic nucleus not only left deep marks: some buildings that compose the Kremlin, in Moscow, are workmanship of Florentine architects.
Secular building of the renascentista architecture
During the Renaissance two types of secular construction had been distinguished in Italy: palazzo or palace, and the Villa. The palaces, in the beginnings of the renaissance, constituíam an intermediate construction between the ortaleza and the senhorial house. Its particular structure was a consequência of the continuous fights politics that if unchained in the cities: not rare, the members of a party attacked the palace of a rival. Therefore, the palaces constituíam true blocks of massive rock.
The renascentista patio conferred to the interior of the palace the elegant and sober aspect that lacks to the exterior of the construction. For the beauty of the internal patio, the luxurious life can be assayed that took principes and rich merchants of the Renaissance.
In many Italian cities it was common that these palaces were also commercial establishments. The great merchants and its families inhabited the first one to walk of the building, whereas the térreo one was busy for store and warehouses.
The Villa nothing more age senão an adaptation of old domus Roman. With its loggia (gallery) and its ample terraces, are placed in the center of an immense garden. The most characteristic example of this construction is the Villa Capra, in Venice, workmanship of Palladio architect.
Renaissance is the name that if gives to the period of européia history, characterized for one renewed interest for the past classic Greek-Roman, who goes of century XV to century XVI. Based on the concept of that the man is the measure of all the things, the renaissance meant a return to the forms and ratio of the greco-roman antiquity. This artistic movement started if to reveal in Italy, century XIV, more necessarily in Florença, city that to this height already if had become an independent state and one of the more important commercial centers of the world, and spread out for all the Europe, during centuries XV and XVI.
In few years, the renaissance was spread out for the too much Italian cities (known period as quattrocento), to extend itself little by little, in ends of century XV, to the remaining portion of the European continent, in the cinquecento call, or classic renaissance. The bases of this movement were porporcionadas by a reinante philosophical chain, the humanismo, that discarded the medieval scholastic, until then reinante, and considered the return to the virtues of the antiquity.
Greco-roman Platão, Aristotle, Virgílio, Sêneca and other authors start to be translated and quickly spread out. In this manner, the spirit of the old classic philosophy does not take much time to flood the cuts of the new bourgeois aristocracy. The renascentista gentleman must now be turned in all disciplines them artistic and scientific.
Imbuídas of this spirit, the supplied families had not hesitated in attracting for its world artists of great reputation, which had given its support, becoming, after all, its patron. Musicians, poets, philosophers, sculptors, painters, silversmiths and architects had left the anonymity tax for the medieval period and capsize to grow its name and its fame, together with the one of its customers. In the north of the Europe, the thought humanist already had given its first significant steps.
It was thanks to the reformador Lutero and to the universities, for intermediary of the study of accurate sciences and the philosophy, that if had spread out the ideas of its Italian pairs. For return of the end of century XV, the notice of the discovery of a new continent arrived of Spain, America, fact that would forever change the fisonomia of the world. The man if distanciava thus, in definitive way, the medieval period decidedly to enter modernity.
The term renaissance was used for the first time in 1855, for the French historian Jules Michelet, to mention the discovery to it of the World and the man in century XVI. The Swiss historian Jakob Burckhardt extended this concept (1860), defining this time as the renaissance of the humanity and the modern conscience, after a long period of decay.