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Died Great Carlos (724-814), the Sacro Roman Empire is divided enters its three heirs. For the treated one to Verdun, firmed in 843, the region that if extends of the Alps to the sea of the North fits the Lotário, the Germânia the Luis and the Francônia the Carlos.
The Europe crosses a difficult phase: diverse invasions devastate its territory in all the directions. The real armies do not obtain withhold the Arabs, who, in century IX, had attacked Rome and Campânia (in Italy) and Marseilles and Arles (in current France). For the North they attack the Normans, taking possetion itself of the northern coasts of France, of part of the Iberian peninsula and England. In century X, Hungarian incursions reach the Lombardia, part of France and Rome. Everything contribuía for the decomposition of the monarchic institutions.
The real power, diminished in its authority, goes being substituted for the power of the noble castelões: the feudal castle was the only ortaleza that some resistance to the invaders offered, and the intimidated populations if they organized around it. This instability collaborates for the propagation of the belief of that the world would finish in year 1000. The men live frightened with the perspective of the final judgment nailed by the Church: they fear the chaos. The art reflects the apocalypse, the paintings walls appalling portraies the panic that invades the Europe occidental person.
Year 1001 started and the world did not finish. Oto I, that reunifies the Germânia and is crowned, for the Pope João XI, emperor of the Sacro Império Roman-Germanic (962), obtains to dominate the Hungarians and Slavs and to expand its conquests northward. Resurge the commercial activities before braked by the invasions, and the demographic increase is followed by the increase of cultivated areas.
The Church fortifies its secular power increasing the extensions of land that it dominated until then: terço of the French territory arrives to possess one all. The monastic orders grow, and most important, the order of Cluny, established in 910, in the Borgonha (current France), goes extending to its authority the point to congregate, at the beginning of century XI, 10 a thousand monges in 1.450 monasteries spread for all the Europe. The cisterciense order, in turn, counts on 530 monasteries under its control. The Church is the biggest institution of this time: it dominates, secular culturally and, the medieval spirit.
In the years that if had followed to year 1000, they turn over to reconstruct churches in almost all the Christian Europe. Exactly when this was not necessary, each Christian community concurred in emulation to build sanctuaries more sumptuous than its neighbor. The construction fever that invaded the Europe reflects the spirit of the time, and the românico style, that characterized the arts since the end of century X until middle of century XI, synthecizes in its traces the historical one of this period.
The feudalismo was the new order of the society then, while the Sacro Empire went if firming politically. Until this moment, the architecture did not differentiate palaces of churches formal, had to the fact of the emperor, of some form, to represent the religious power in such a way how much the weather. The benedictines, then after the first monarcais reforms, had been the first ones to consider in its constructions the original forms of the românico. A vaulted architecture appears thus, of solid walls and delicate columns finished in cubical capitéis, that if distancia them rustic castles of rock that they gave to sequência to the line after-Roman.
The Church is the only building where if the population congregates, and important part of the social life if uncurls in its interior. The rich monastic orders and the powerful noblemen look for to raise in louvor the God the certifications of its faith. Therefore, the românico style will find its bigger expression in the architecture. Considered “art sacra”, it is come back to the construction of churches, monasteries, abbeys and monasteries - the “sacred ortalezas”.
The Românica art, whose typical representation apses and round towers are the basilicas of rock with two repletas of arches, was extended of century XI to the first half of century XIII. Its scene was almost all the Europe, except the France, that already from century XI produced art gótica. Although the barbarity and of the primitivismo that had reigned during this time, can be said that the românico established the bases for the européia culture of the Average Age.
It was in the churches that the românico style if developed in all its fullness. Its basic forms are easily identifiable: the façade is formed by a central cubical body, with two towers of some floors in the laterals, finished for ceilings in kitchen-range overhead exhaust. One or two transeptos, tipped for its corresponding façades, they cross the main ship. Frisos of arches of half point extends on the wall, dividing the plant.
The reason of the arches also is happened again as decorative element of windows, vestibules and spandrels. The columns are fine and culminate in cubical capitéis cultivated with figures of vegetables and animals. In the set, the cubical forms of walls and façades if combine with the cylindrical ones, of apses and columns. They date among others of this time, the famous cathedrals of Worms, in Germany, St. Sernin de Toulouse, St. Trophyme in Arles, St. Madeleine de Vezelay and the Cathedral of Autun, in France, Santo Ambrósio of Milan and the Cathedral of Pisa.
Force and solidity characterize the Românicas Churches. The essential element is the vault of rock, bricks and mortar, in form of cradle, given for the full arc of cintra (half circumference). Its weight is supported by thick and massive walls, with few windows, not to compromise the stability of the construction. Internal columns and exterior pilasters - called abutments - provide a suplemental reinforcement. Them pillars and columns, to the times form espinhões - salience in the internal surface of the vaults. The simple and robust capitéis do not obey a definite style: they are half-spherical, cubical, trapezóidais, as the fancy of the constructor.
The façade is simple. On the central door he is óculo, circular opening for illumination and ventilation of the interior. The final result is always an imponent set of shady interiors. The românico style synthecizes the soul of the men who had created it. On the other hand, it reflects the fear that dominated the populations of the Europe occidental person; for another one, it states the deep feeling religious that marked the period. To the measure that the time passed and the power of the Church it increased, the constructions had been if becoming requintadas more and more. The luxury of the Abbey and the innumerable monasteries arrived at such point that it inside motivated protests of the proper Church.
Although the românico style has dominated the Europe occidental person, joined for the faith, its architecture presented, however, regional variations in accordance with the diverse local influences, that had originated some Românicas schools. In old Great Greece (South of Italy), they are common the constructions of plain ceiling, walls and pisos of mosaic. In Rome the primitive Christian traditions persist, remaining it plant in Latin cross. In the region of Milan, As, Pavia, Verona, the architecture suffers influences from the lombardos. In the Toscana, the greco-roman traditions are remained. In Venice, the bizantina influence is accented. In France, it is distinguished according to school of Borgonha, guided traditions of the Abbey of Cluny, of Auvergne, Spanish influence, of Perigeux, that uses the bizantina cupola. In England, after the conquest of Guillermo, in 1066, the ancestry is nitidamente Norman. In Germany, the imfluência lombarda gives origin to the renana school. E, finally, in northern Spain the styles join Christian and sarraceno.
The plain archetype of the Românica church drift of the Latin basilica, local ample, previously destined to the functioning of the Roman courts. The main ship is cut by transepto, what it gives the symbolic cross form to it. The lateral ships, seconding the main one, allowed that many pilgrims circulated without interrupting the celebrations of the rituals. In absides, small half-circular chapels that buy at auction the ships, met the images sacred, and the valuable relics were locked up in cripta, under the main altar. Between the main altar and absides the choir places itself, and has itself access to these chapels for a ticket in semicircle, called deambulatory. The indirect illumination comes through the secondary ships, given for small lateral openings, miniature windows that do not obtain to attenuate the shady aspect of the Românica church.