arquitetura

 

Russian architecture

Russian architecture


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House Architecture and Construction


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It was in Novgorod that if had developed the basic characteristics of the Russian architecture, with a set of monuments that has as example more notable the cathedral of Saint Sofia (1045-1052), with two ships, three absides and five cupolas.
The history of the Russian architecture can be divided in four periods: the bizantino, between centuries X and XVI, national or the Moscovite one of century XVI to the XVIII, the petersburguês or European, between century XVIII and the beginning of the century XX, and the Soviet, between 1918 and 1990.
Bizantino period. With the cristianização of Russia, in 988, the bizantinas artistic conceptions had become dominant in the principalities of Kiev, Novgorod and Suzdal. The typical esplendor of the bizantina architecture started to constitute the characteristic trace of the new orthodox churches, that had adopted the Greek project with the enrolled cross in a rectangle and the cupola supported for pillars. Desiatinaia church enters the temples of the Kievs constructed inside of the bizantina tradition is distinguished it (989-990), the cathedral of Saint Sofia (1037) and the church of the Installation, in the monastery of the Caves (1073-1078).
All these churches had been constructed on the basis of the bizantina tradition, even so with clear influences of Bulgaria, Geórgia and Armenia. The cathedral of Saint Sofia, main temple of Russia, is the only building of this still existing period and that it keeps, at least in its interior, part of the original form. The central part of the temple was constructed in cross form Greek and the central ship and the four laterals finished in absides circular. The cathedral had 13 cupolas, that they symbolized Christ and the 12 apóstolos.
In Novgorod, as in Kiev, the history of the ecclesiastical architecture had beginning with the construction of the cathedral of Saint Sofia, enters the years of 1045 and 1052, that it substituted a temple of name the same, with 13 vadas of the world. It is composed in three well differentiated ethnic groups: hutus, of etnia banto, that they constitute 85% of the population and they are traditionally agriculturists; the tutsis, shepherds of nilótica etnia, had been for much time the ruling class, although to add only 14% of the total population; e the small minority twa, of hunters, fishing and ceramists of pigméia etnia and that it constitutes 1% of the population.
The Frenchman and quiniaruanda, language of the group banto, are the official languages of Ruanda, but a small parcel of the population only says the Frenchman. Suaíle very is said in the cities. Beyond the capital, Kigali, other important cities are Nianza, Gisenii, Giangugu and Gitarama. (For demographic data, to see DATAPÉDIA.)
Economy. The geographic situation of Ruanda and the relative poverty of its territory do not favor the economic, engaged development still more for the explosive growth of the population. Most of the inhabitants of the country if dedicates to agriculture and to the cattle one, in small properties familira Rome " had created conditions for the sprouting of projects compatible architectural with the importance of the city. Kremlin and two of its main churches -- the cathedrals of the Installation and of Are Miguel Arcanjo -- they had been reconstructed by Italian architects between the years of 1475 and 1510. In this period, the ecclesiastical architecture started if to free of the bizantina influence, nationalizing themselves and adopting solutions in accordance with the popular taste.
The main occured change in century XVI was the introduction of the spiral towers in place of the traditional bizantina cupola. The constructions had acquired national, visible characteristics over all in the church of the Ascension, in Kolomenskoe, of 1532; of They are João Batista, of about 1532; in the one of Diakovo; e, mainly, in the cathedral of Is Basílio, constructed between 1555 and 1560 in the Red square, in Moscow. In this last one, in Russian medieval style, the academic concepts had been ignored. Also of century XVI it is the church of the natividade and the bell tower of Ivan the Great one of the cathedral of the Kremlin, whose radiating cupola constituted the expression of a time, showing the taste and the huge ambitions politics of the been spring Russian. The baroque architecture, whose better exemplary it is the church of the Intercession, was transformed into a purely national style.
Petersburguês period. The foundation of Is Petersburgo designated the beginning of a new age in the Russian architecture. The act of contract, for Peter the Great one, of professionals of the Europe occidental person for the accomplishment of its ambitious projects opened the doors to over all dutch, German, French and Italian the influence foreign. To the baroque one -- that it acquired new expression, corporificada in the peculiar Russian sense of form, scales and choice of materials-- the style was followed rococó, with its classic refinement, that culminated in the russificado style of the empire, notable for its monumentalidade, integration of volume and space, colored and escultórica decoration.
It enters the main constructions of this period, are distinguished it cathedral of the Smolni convent (1748-1764) and the palace of Winter (1732); the Academy of Beautiful-Art (1764-1788); the Admiralty (1806-1823); the buildings of the Sínodo and the Senate (1829-1834); e the new Ermitage (1840-1850). Meanwhile, in Moscow the constructions presented more modest characteristics, as the buildings of the university (1817-1819) and the Bolshoi Theater (1821-1824). From 1830, however, the Moscovite architects had adopted a nationalistic line, with the creation of a genuinamente Russian style, of that the church of Christ, Salvador (1837) and the Great Palace of the Kremlin are examples (1839-1848).
Soviet period. The socialist revolution of 1917 occurred at a moment where the movements vanguard architectural already had been spread out in Russia. During the first years, between 1918 and 1922, the architects, in its desire to translate the dynamics of the revolution in plastic forms, had tended for the symbolism and later for the construtivismo, the bureaucracy and the theories of the school of Bauhaus. The modernista experimentation continued up to 1930, when the movement of return to the monumental and decorative classicismo of the creations of Ivan Joltovski and Zinovi Rozenfeld had beginning, among others.
The ressurgimento of the nationalism in the end of the decade of 1930 produced the return to the traditions, whose expressivos examples are some stations of the subway of Moscow, the Agricultural Exposition of the Union (1939-1940), the State University of Moscow, public and residential hotels, buildings. From the end of the stalinista age, characterized in the architecture for the call stalinista style of the postwar period, numerous architects had started to defend the abandonment of the classic cliches. In 1955 the government initiated a program of revision of the drawing architectural, with the objective to standardize the construction industry. One dedicated then particular attention to the development of construction materials, such as plastic, light metals and strengthened concrete, and to the decorative possibilities of forms not-conventionals.
To the light of the new experiences, the architects had started to reinterpretar the principles of the modern architecture, being reconciled new and the old one. Examples of these conceptions are visible in the cities satellites of Moscow and Leningrad, in the residential sets of New Cheremuchki, in Moscow, in the Soviet Pavilion of the International Exposition of Brussels, of 1958, and in the modern buildings of Moscow: palace of the Congresses, in the enclosure of the Kremlin, collective project, directed for Mikhail Vassilievitch Possokhin; building of the Arbat square; cinema October; skyscraper of the Comecon; e the Russia cinema, in the Puchkin square.
The growth of the urban population, the wars and the necessity to destine substantial mounts of money to the creation and implantation of the heavy industry had aggravated the habitacional problem in the Soviet Union. To decide it, the government appealed to the standardization, the job of daily pay-molded and the elimination of the superfluous one, what without a doubt it sold at a loss and it sped up the construction, but did not contribute for the aesthetic one of the Russian architecture of the Soviet period.
source: ©Encyclopaedia Britannica of Brazil Ltda Publications.

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