Civil construction

Civil construction


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Differently of the proper activities of the transformation industry, into which the raw materials are converted into new products, the constructive activities basically occupy of the assembly and adaptation of finished or half-finished products.
Civil construction or industry of the construction is the economic activity that has for objective the execution of architecture workmanships and/or engineering, using mainly originated intermediate and final products of other sectors of the economy.
The development of the industry of the construction has great effect on almost all the sectors of the economy of a country. Numerous industries supply it e, at the same time, on it they depend for its expansion. Its paper in the regional or national economies is extremely important: of one it has left, as source of job of vast staff of man power, of workers notadamente not-specialized; of another part, as consumer of enormous variety of merchandises produced in the most diverse technological levels (clay, sand, rocks, whitewash, bricks, metallic roofing tiles, wood, esquadrias wooden and, plated cement, iron and steel, metallic structures, tiles and paving-tiles, sanitary wares, asphalt).
The investments in the industry of the construction, considering themselves the three sectors where if it subdivides - residential constructions, not-residential constructions and infrastructure public works - represent substantial part in the rude formation of capital fixture, as much in the countries developed as in the developing countries (between forty and seventy percent). Its participation in the gross national product also is considerable, oscillating frequently between four and eight percent.
Description. In the Average Age it was distinguished construction of cathedrals, that demanded intense organization of efforts, for attainment of specialized man power, creation of new techniques, transport of materials and mobilization of great number of laborers. The transport of materials influía consideravelmente in the cost of the workmanship: the loads of rocks, wooden and of other raw materials of construction represented important parcels of the regional and international commerce.
In the current times, the factors stimulants of the development of the Civil construction had been the increase of the urban population and the growth of the industry. The opening of canals and roads, complained for the industrial revolution, multiplied and transformed the activity of construction. They date then, in the Europe, the real estate companies and also the appearance of the contractor of workmanships as central figure of the construction of highways and railroads.
During the decade of 1920 the first skyscrapers with steel structure had been risen that if had become symbols of the progress of the United States and megalópoles of the whole world. To the innovations in materials and appeared techniques then others born after the World War I had been joined. The armed concrete revolutionized the constructive technique. The classic façades of rock or paving-tile had been substituted by the ones of glass, stainless steel, enamelled aluminum, metals etc. Became of current use machines to disassemble, to smooth and to dry the ground, to prepare the structures, to install tubings or to carry through similar functions. Especially in buildings the use of daily pay-manufactured parts is today common. New concepts architectural of recovery of the land between the pilotis or columns of the térreo floor, allowing its exploitation as suspended terraces and gardens, had demanded diverse types of waterproofing to the base of bitumen and felt and metallic blades, where material specialized and the thermal isolation they had taken detached place.
Economic aspects of the construction. The industry of the Civil construction congregates a great variety of companies, whom if they in such a way differentiate for the transport as for the activity that they play. This industry understands two great sectors: real estate and of infrastructure and heavy engineering. For ends of economic analysis, costuma to decompose the industry of the Civil construction in five great segments: transport ways (highways, railroads, ports, airports and subway); hydraulical workmanships (mainly hidrelétricas and sanitation workmanships); constructions; workmanships and services special; e other workmanships. The real estate sector congregates on the public companies and private to the segment constructions, basically the constructors. The sector of infrastructure and heavy engineering understands the others four segments.
Before if initiating any construction it is necessary to take a series of decisions, as choice of the appropriate place, plants of the construction, study of the economic viability and cronograma. All these elements are important and none can be considered separately. One of the crucial points consists of knowing the one that use the construction if destines. In the case of commercial buildings and department stores, supermarkets etc., in general have necessity of previous studies of market. After that it is looked to determine which will be the general use of the building and of each one of its areas. In the case of a great commercial center, for example, it has areas destined to the store, areas of circulation, parking, security etc. A school project must consider the potential clientele and the diverse areas according to its occupation: classrooms, esportivo gymnasium, library, canteen etc.
The localization of the property is also of the biggest relevance. In this particular one they must be considered the price of the land, the taxes and taxes that will happen on the property, availability of next resources, light and water supply, sewers, easiness of transport, zoning of urban occupation (residential, commercial or industrial) and proximity of the market, in case of commercial buildings. A supermarket, for example, needs to know with security the one that distance if locates its potential market. Already in a project of building of offices, it is important to determine the one that distance the main lines of transport pass. To the measure that if raises these data, goes also appearing the advantages and disadvantages of the localization, that, sopesadas, they will indicate the localization more, amongst that is in study.
The purpose of the architecture project is to inside give the best possible solution of the limits of the budget of construction. In this aspect they consider it relation enters the area of the land and of the property, as well as the relation between occupants and constructed area. After that it is defined the general plant and the sectorial plants, in which if it describes and it illustrates the place, the materials to be used, the structure, the mechanical equipment and even though the furniture. Here the structural materials are considered -- wood, steel or concrete -- the localization and the rolling capacity of the conditional air system, elevators and stairs, the illumination, the plumbing, the acoustic system and the indicated colors more for painting.
Traced these more general lines she is necessary to arrive the specifications most necessary: quality and amount of material, dimensions of each area, finishing of the walls and the ceiling, doors and windows, points of light and equipment of kitchen, bathroom etc. These specifications are incorporated the contract of construction, among others reasons because this facilitates the act of contract of services third, as the special equipment installation. A signed time the contract, initiates it construction, inside of a cronograma of workmanship and costs. All this preliminary work is commanded by the architect but technician counts on the participation of diverse others, as mechanical engineers, specialists in costs and technician in illumination, refrigeration and acoustics. One of the first phases of the construction is the preparation of the necessary documentation and contracts between the some parts, in order to guarantee the conclusion of the workmanship.
The use of the appropriate materials to the type of construction -- considering the specifications techniques of the project and the available budget -- it is of capital importance. It has the said materials structural -- most resistant, in general elaborated in elements of great dimensions and destined to support the scaffolding of the building --, and the ones that form the hydraulical and electric walls and ceilings, installations, the covering and the finishing of the building. In the first case they are the cement and the armed concrete, the steel and the iron, the diverse types of rock, sand, wood etc. All these materials have in common the function to serve of support to the ones of as the group. These are the bricks and roofing tiles, the esquadrias wooden and aluminum, the wares sanitary, the stainless steel, the leather, the brass, the lead, the glass, the têxteis etc. Some of these materials have protection function and serve to assure the longevity of the construction.
source: ©Encyclopaedia Britannica of Brazil Ltda Publications.

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