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Before associated to other forms of artistic creation, as the painting or the architecture, the Drawing gained importance from the Renaissance and to the few it passed to be valued as independent work of art.
Drawing is the art to create forms by means of lines or traces on a surface, generally paper. It is distinguished from the painting because in this if it gives the application of ink colored on surfaces of other types, almost always more rigid. The Drawing is based on the line, or the crossing of lines, to define profiles, light and shades. Its techniques are diverse; in some, one works with extensions of spots, more than what with simple lines. In such cases, however, the Drawing is distinguished from the painting in function of the employed materials. In contrast of the engraving and the lithography, the Drawing does not pass for no process of reproduction mechanics, being only fruit of the direct creation of the artist.
Although the representation of linear type already existed since the paleolithic period, he is not allowed to speak of Drawing properly said before Average Age e, over all, of the Renaissance. The medieval Drawings disclosed one total subordination to the painting; they were the form established in the memorandum of understanding used by the painters as repertoire of images, compiled in books to facilitate its use, as the famous album of the Frenchman Villard de Honnecourt, century XIII.
In ends of century XIV a change was produced that impelled the Drawing to the direct comment of the nature. Italian Cennino Cennini, of the school of Giotto, was one of the first ones that they had pointed out the importance of the Drawing, not only as instrument, but also as bedding and origin of the arts. From now on, the Drawing was considered a work of art and soon it became itself into object of theoretical speculation for authors of a scientific treatise as Leone Battista Alberti and Giorgio Vasari, Italian architects.
In the opinion of these authors and its disciples, the Drawing -- if understood as the “line” or the contour -- he demonstrated to be a noble art, since he was white of research in different areas, allowed to the study of the figure human being and gave origin to a painting style of great inspiration, characterized for the classicista ideal of the forms. In opposition to this Roman and Florentine style, that favored the line and the elaboration of Drawings, the venezianos artists had defended a less linear and based painting in the color. On the other hand, despite the Drawing over all continued to be used as the first step for the painting, artists as the German Albrecht Dürer use-in already of independent form in some pictures.
In centuries XVII and XVIII, the Drawing reached absolute independence. Rembrandt almost did not carry through preliminary Drawings, therefore it considered these a specific sort. In the proper land of the painting the controversies between “tracers” and “coloristas” had appeared, that is, between the followers, on the other hand, of the Poussin Frenchman and, for another one, of flamengo Rubens. Such rivalry had to see with other ampler concepts, that had only come to be defined in century XIX, as the classicismo and the romantismo, until the art contemporary breached with these limitations and in such a way took the painting as the Drawing to a maximum expression of formal and conceptual freedom.
Degrees exist diverse of elaboration of Drawing, that goes since a light sketch, carried through with fast touchs, that only insinuate the forms, until Drawings with great severity of details. Moreover, the diversity of materials defines the technique. Thus, the metal tip, the pencil and the peak-of-penalty vary in its tracing, that can be more or less thick, fluid or dense, to the step that watery of ink and the watercolor spots produce liquid and extensive. On the other hand, the Conté pencil, the coal, the sanguina (red done pencil of ocre) and the crayon give compact and hot surfaces, of rich luminous contrasts.
Techniques. Drawing the coal. The previous Drawings are rare the coal the 1500, of time that the coal esmaece with rapidity, and setting methods had only been ranks in practical after that date. With the coal, it is possible in such a way to trace lines how much to execute shades. If calcado with force, it produces intense a trace black; if of light, gray one that it will vary of tonality, according to ability and the technique of the tracer. Dürer, in the Renaissance, and Ernst Barlach, in principles of century XX, is between the most important artists who had made use of the coal as material of Drawing.
Drawing the chalk. Executed with black chalk, or red, on paper, cardboard etc., this form of Drawing appeared in Italy and Germany in century XV. Leonardo of the Vinci, Michelangelo and many other great masters had left Drawings the chalk.
Watery. After the introduction of the Chinese painting in the Europe, in full baroque period, the Drawing the watery one knew great fashion. It is made with ink, by means of the job of penalty and brush, on a support of paper. Poussin and other artists célebres had used such method.
Watercolor. The technique of the watercolor is resembled more to the painting that to the Drawing. However, the watercolor possesss the same espontaneidade of the Drawing, therefore it does not offer no possibility of retouching. It uses a pigment in dust mixed Arabian and diluted gum in water. It is applied in paper with soft brushes. The technique already was known between the Egyptians, in century II of the Christian age, but it was only developed from century XV, and over all from Dürer. With the watercolor beautiful transparencies of light and color are gotten, reason by which very is appreciated by the paisagistas.
Crayon. Made with aid of artificial chalk that slides on a paper support, card etc., the crayon comes close to the Drawing the red chalk. The crayons oldest retrace to century XV, but in century XVIII it only reached its maximum development.
Metal tip. One of the techniques oldest, the metal tip is precursory of the Drawing the pencil. It consists of the use of stilettos with tip of silver, gold or lead, that leave an gray or golden trace in the surface of the paper coated with bone a watery dust solution, Arabian gum e, eventually, corante. The metal tip furrows the covering layer, enrolling itself in the leaf, not allowing to scraping or retouching. It is a very delicate Drawing, especially the silver tip, that leaves a trace ash-clearly that becomes gloomy with the time. She was used for Pisanello, Rafael, Leonardo, Holbein and Dürer.
Drawing the pencil. Used frequently as a preliminary study of a painting, the Drawing the pencil can be made with natural or artificial pencil. Natural it is the black pencil of Spain or Italy, the lead pencil of the Drawings old architectural, the dutch red pencil (iron oxide). The artificial pencil, of graphite, was created by the mechanic and French chemistry Nicolas-Jacques Conté, in 1795. Although the graphite pencil already existed in England, Belgium and Spain since 1600, the inventor of the process to manufacture pencil of different durezas was Conté, adding clay to the graphite in viscous state.
Drawing the penalty. The duck penalty, of rush or of steel, absorbed in ink, and from century XVIII in sépia, produces on a strong, absorbent and smooth paper the call Drawing the penalty, or peak-of-penalty. The penalty was since the antiquity a favourite instrument of writing. Its use as Drawing utensil retraces to the high Average Age. Artists as Rembrandt had used the rush penalty, that only became popular itself in century XVII. Proper for the fast Drawings, the penalty demands the use of the ink, colored watery solution whose more common types are nanquim, the sépia and bistre, beyond the modern inks that do not esmaecem with the time.
source: ©Encyclopaedia Britannica of Brazil Ltda Publications.