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Design is understood (in some cases project or projecto) as the related creative effort to the configuration, conception, elaboration and definition of something, as an object, an image, among others, in general come back to one determined function. Of one Design forms ample the term, however, if it relates the conception of a previous solution for a problem. But in a more specific meaning, Design if relates to the profession of the person whom it projects. As such, it has diverse specializations, in accordance with which type of thing is projected. The professional who works in the area of Design is called, therefore, of Designer, since the word belongs to the English language and normally it does not express yourself.
Therefore, it is a creative effort through which if they project all type of things, including utensils, graphical clothes, parts, books, machines, environments e (recently) also interfaces of programs.
The specializations most common are Design of product, Design graphical and Design of fashion. Design is intimamente on to the applied arts, the architecture, and engineering, but the professional competition many times leads to the animosity between these areas.
The term comes of the English language, and this generated a translation problem. The possible translations involve “project”, “drawing”, “configuration” or “form”.
Design as profession
Due to abrangência of the term, it is sufficiently difficult to need which activities are or not Design. Today an enormous variety of professions had passed to be called Design, some times of errônea form. It enters the specializations of Design if they find:
* Design Graphical
Design of hipermídia
Design of interaction
Design of games
* Design of product
* Design of environments
Design of fairs, events, and stands
Between the professions that are related to Design, they are inclusas Architecture, Engineering, Advertising, Marketing, and others.
Design according to GUI Bonsiepe
Second, célebre theoretician of Design, GUI Bonsiepe, Design consists of the “domain in which if structure the interaction between user and product, to facilitate to action effective”. For the author, all Design is Design of interfaces, in the direction of Designer does not go to produce the form that the product functions (task of engineering, programming, among others development areas), but the interaction of the product with the user.
Relations between Design and the art
The questioning of the artistic character of Design is one of the questions that traditionally more worry the young that if comes across for the first time with its conceptual problems. The reply simplest to the question “Design is an art” it is “not”: Design does not have to be called art, which had to one determined form of if relatively enxergar its history to the history of the modern art and contemporary. This because from century XIX the term “art” gained a on ideological direction to an individualistic material production and transcendente, while Designers defended a functional activity that took care of to the society. In century XIX new partner-economic necessities had led to a split in the said activities artistic, having from then on a gradual, but sufficiently evident differentiation, between Designers and plastic artists.
It is important to understand that “art” does not need to be a on restrictive term to any professional activity. E.H. Gombrich, celebrity art historian, looked for in its workmanship not to produce a reading relativista of the art, from there to affirm that “nothing really the one exists that if can give the name of Art”. That is, art is a value not a phenomenon of the nature. Any thing can be called art since that somebody considers it thus, does not need to have been made for a plastic artist, or Designer.
However, another historian of the same generation that of Gombrich, Giulio Italian Carlo Argan, considers a more including vision of the modern art, understanding it as moment of same reevaluation of itself in its historical crisis, considering there the some fields of Design (as the architecture, urbanism and Design in itself exactly) as legitimate artistic manifestations of modernity. Valley to stand out, however, that with the reorganization of the consumption of masses in the period after-modern, as well as next to a process of accented fetichismo of the industrial production, new epistemológicas definitions of Design are necessary, fatally moving away it consideravelmente from the art contemporary.
But as the usual form of the word art it has been, many times, ideologicamente restrictive, does not have interest on the part of Designers of if subjecting the ideologies of other areas. This if must to the fact of that some ideologies exist that devaluate Design and the reproduction technique.
The etimológico problem
In English, Design is in such a way a substantive how much a verb. The verb mentions a process to it to originate and to develop a project for a thing, that can require many intellectual working hours, modeling, iterative adjustments and re-Design. The substantive is in such a way the finished product of the action, or the result of if following the action plan.
The English term is sufficiently including, but when the professionals had absorbed it for the Portuguese, they wanted to only assign the practical professional of Design. She was necessary to differentiate Design of drawing, emphasizing that the profession involved more than what the mere representation of the projected things. In the Spanish language also this distinction exists: the words exist diseño (that it is mentioned to Design) and dibujo (that is mentioned to the drawing).
Etimológicos studies of Slave Luis Vidal Gomes indicate that also in the Portuguese these existed the same nuances of meaning, with the words debuxo, sketch and others meaning that debujo and drawing comportanto all the wealth of meanings of diseño.
In the Bauhaus, was adopted word gestaltung, that it means it the act to practise gestalt, that is, to deal with the forms, or formatting. When translated for the English, “Design” was adopted, already used to mention the “projects”.
In Brazil, with the implementation of the first superior course of Design, for return of the decade of 50, it was adopted expression “industrial drawing”, therefore to the time he was forbidden the use of foreign words to assign courses in national universities. The dispute on a nomenclature for the profession if extended per decades. Currently in such a way the legislation of the MEC for superior courses how much some professional associations use the English term.
Architect Vilanova Artigas tried to decide the question considering the word Design as being the correct translation of Design, therefore of this form, this would present differences of the simple “drawing”. Although to be drawing, Design would possess something more: an intention (or Design). However, although the research carried through for the architect, its proposal was not adopted.
Another proposal of nomenclature was the projética neologism, considered for Houaiss, that was also not adopted.
History of Design
The use of the word in other contexts
In the philosophy the abstract substantive Design mentions objetividade, intention, or teleologia to it. The concept is sufficiently modern, and if it interposes between classic ideas of citizen and object. Design is then opposing the arbitrary creation, without objective or of low complexity.
Recently the term passed to be used in religious quarrels, when a law was proposal that would compel the American schools to present the argument of Design intelligent as an alternative to the theory of the natural election of Darwin. The argument supports that some aspects of the universe and the life are complex excessively or perfect excessively to originate without a creative intelligence.