engineering of the Computation
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The engineering of the Computation (some times also called engineering of Computer systems) is one disciplines specialized that it combines electric engineering and the computer science. An engineer of the computation is an engineer electrician with focus in logic of digital systems, and little emphasis in radio frequency or functioning of electro-electronic devices. Of the perspective of the computer science, an engineer is an architect of software with focus in the interaction between this and the hardware.
The course of graduation in engineering of the Computation has been added the university since the beginning of years 1990. Some universities had integrated electric engineering with the engineering of software in the departments of electric engineering, while others, as the MIT (Institute of Technology of Massachussetts), had opted to joining the departments of electric engineering and computer science.
A time that the engineers of the computation focam themselves, essentially, in electronics and computers, the content of its courses will have, tendencialmente, less you discipline of natural sciences as the statics or the dynamics of what the traditional courses of engineering. Instead of this, courses on the beddings of the computer science are given.
engineering of control and automation
The car assembly plants had automatized almost that completely its assembly line, diminishing the cost of the production as well as the final cost of the vehicle.
The car assembly plants had automatized almost that completely its assembly line, diminishing the cost of the production as well as the final cost of the vehicle.
engineering of control and automation is the area inside of the engineering directed to the control of industrial processes using itself toward this of sensing elements, elements actuators, systems of control, Systems of Supervision and Acquisition of Dados (SCADA) and other methods that use the resources of the electronics, the mechanics and computer science.
The engineering of Control and Automation if concentrates, above all, in the automation, that nothing more is of what making a manual process if becoming an automatic process. The automation if gives for complete when all a production line functions of the start to the end without the intervention human being, acting only for the control of the proper machines and controllers.
The control engineering is the branch of the engineering that if centers in the mathematical modelação of systems of diverse natures, analyzing its dynamic behavior, and using the control theory to calculate the parameters of a controller who makes the system to evolve of the desired form.
This branch of engineering intimamente is related with electric engineering, a time that the electrónicos circuits can easily be described using methods of the control theory.
Inside of chemical engineering we find also control applications, a time that in the chemical processes that elapse throughout the productive passage in an installation, is necessary to control the behavior of the 0 variable that intervene with these chemical processes.
Several other areas of engineering also are related with the control engineering, therefore its techniques and methods can be applied in any system of which if it obtains to extract a model.
The engineering of Instrumentation is the “art” to bind the most varied disciplines of engineering. The measurement and control, the two visible faces of the instrumentation, have brought technology for a degree of precision without precedents. The instrumentation allows the measurement of some 0 variable, such as temperature and pressure. The control actua to keep these 0 variable in the level desired in terms of economic parameters, security, among others necessary options.
The instrumentation engineers have vast knowledge (or same formation) of chemical engineering, electrotécnica engineering and engineering mechanics, as well as in the field of the control engineering.
economic engineering is the branch of the engineering that if destines to study the economic and financial costs and impacts of the projectos of engineering. In this area of engineering the projectos of investment are analyzed, the industrial yield of the projectos of engineering, costs and the productivity.
Electric engineering is the branch of the engineering that deals with the study and the application of the electric energy and the electromagnetismo. With respect to the electric energy, it involves the generation (hydroelectric-power, termoeléctricas, nuclear plants generating) and the transport (lines of high-voltage transmission), as well as the use in the residences, the industries (control and electric automation, machines, motor electric), in the telecommunications (fixed and cellular telephony, radio, television) and in computer science, amongst other applications.
It divides itself in the following areas of specialization:
* Systems of electric energy - studies of generation, transmission and distribution of electric energy; planning, trustworthiness, stability and protection of electrical systems and use of computational techniques applied the power systems;
* Systems of electrónica of power - studies of electrónicos devices of power, drive of electric machines, control of engines, digital simulation of machines and converters and electric loads special;
* Systems of telecommunications - of video and studies systems audio, antennas and propagation of electromagnetic waves, microwaves, analogical and digital telephony, optic staple fibres, analogical and digital processing of signals, telecommunications for satellite and nets of communications;
* Computer systems - studies of operational systems for computers, project and digital programming of digital systems, nets, graphical computation and CAD, Science of the computers and analysis of computational systems;
* Systems of control and automation - (studies of control of industrial processes for computer, optic control, intelligent systems for industrial, robotic automation, artificial intelligence, adaptativos and nonlinear control.
structural engineering is the branch of dedicated Civil engineering primariamente to the project and calculation of structures. Of simplified form, it is the application of the mechanics of solids to the project of buildings, bridges, walls of containment, barrages, tunnels and other structures.
The objective of the project of a structure is to allow that the same one takes care of to its primary function without entering in collapse and deforming or vibrating excessively. Inside of these limits, which necessarily is defined by the norms techniques, the structural engineer longs for optimum use of the available materials and the lesser possible cost of construction and maintenance of the structure.
Resumidamente, the main stages of the structural project are the creation of the structural project, the definition of loads or forces that act in the structure, the calculation of the efforts and deformations, the sizing of the structural parts, and finally the detailing of the project for execution.
The main types of structural element, in accordance with the geometry and the type of supported effort, are:
* Bar - linear element subject to longitudinal efforts
* Beam - linear element subject to perpendicular and longitudinal efforts
* Pillar - vertical, subject linear element mainly the compression efforts
* Flagstone - element to glide horizontal, subject to perpendicular efforts its plan
These elements are combined in structures, such as:
* Plain Treliça - plain structure formed by bars hardwired for lozenges
* Space Treliça - three-dimensional structure formed by bars and lozenges
* Continuous beam - linear structure formed by some beams hardwired in the extremities
* Plain porch - plain structure formed by beams, bars and pillars
* Space porch - three-dimensional structure formed by beams, bars and pillars
The structural project is a simplified representation of the structure in terms of its elements, connections and supports. Inside of the restrictions of the project architectural, the definition of the structural project is one of the stages more dependents of the knowledge, the experience and the creativity of the structural engineer.
The loads (forces) that they act in the structure can be permanent, such as the proper weight and of objects supported for the structure, or accidental, as the referring ones to the winds. For common structures, the norms techniques loads contain recommendations them to be considered. On the basis of these recommendations, the designer defines diverse shipment cases, with the objective to establish the project condition most favorable (that one that produces the biggest efforts).
Efforts and deformations
The structural efforts (normal effort, cutting effort, fletor moment and torsor moment) are measured structural correspondents to the tensions that act in the material that composes the structure. The normal effort is the operating force in the direction of the part, tending to tracionar it or to compress it, calculated from the normal tension in the section. The cutting effort is the perpendicular force to the part, calculated from the cisalhante tension in the same one. The fletor moment is the moment that tends to bend the part, as resulted of normal tensions of contrary signals in the same section. Finally, the torsor moment tends to twist the part around its proper axle.
The calculation of the efforts is made through the structural analysis, which currently is carried through with the aid of programs specialized. The analysis can be static, considering constant loads in the time, or dynamics, leading in account the variations of loads and the ways of vibration of the structure.
With the automatization of this stage of the project, traditionally the most delayed, the modern designer can dedicate more attention to the points most problematic of the project, beyond modifying more to modify the structural project and considering different load conditions, in search of one better final project. An important area of research in this field is the automatization of these decisions, using for example genetic algorithms to refine the project.
Another result of the structural analysis is the calculation of the deformations of the structure. Except by the structures static determined, in which the efforts can be calculated independently, efforts and deformations they are calculated simultaneously.
Known the efforts in each structural element, it is necessary to dimensionar the part that will go to resist these efforts, that is, to determine its measures. Given the material to be used (as the wood, the steel or the armed concrete) and its properties, the principles of resistance of the materials and mechanics of solids are used to verify that the part is capable to resist the efforts. For example, a section capable can be determined the point most requested and be gotten to resist the efforts in this point. If it will be economically viable, this section is used for all the part. For more complex elements, it can be necessary to analyze some points and to vary the used section, or same to effect the sizing of the part as a whole.
In the same way that the structural analysis, the modern sizing is carried through with the aid of the computer. However, the designer possesss freedom sufficiently to modify the sizing being aimed at to simplify the construction (among others reasons), for example standardizing the sections suggested for the computer program.
For the final execution of the structure, it is necessary that the designer supplies to detailed drawings of the structural parts and its connections. In this stage, also essential lists of materials and other information for the construction are generated.
engineering of telecommunications
The engineering of Telecommunications is an area of specialization of responsible electric engineering for study, specification, project, implementation and maintenance of a variety of communications the long distance through equipment and electrical systems, electronic and optic.
Its abrangência if extends for the following branches of application and its respective more common examples:
* Systems of mobile telephony and fix: services of commuted fixed telephony, services of cellular telephony;
* Systems of propagation saw radio: services of broadcasting (commercial radio and digital analogical television/), private nets of data (digital radio);
* Systems of communications saw satellite: services of broadcasting, telephony and data (mainly in international scope);
* Systems of optic communications: digital nets with high capacity of traffic, services of TV the handle;
* Nets of telecommunications: public and corporative net, computer networks.
Forest engineering is the branch of the engineering that works with the use of products of forest origin. For in such a way, the forest engineer must know the dynamics of the forest and the beings livings creature that are part of it, so that the use of the products does not imply in its exhaustion.
Traditionally, the work field restricted it the great industrias of coal, cellulose and sawed wood; today, with the certainty on that the humanity depends on the environment where she lives, this profession gained importance in other sectors. In the governmental agencies, it works to keep the Unit of Conservation and to fiscalize the use of the areas used for the private initiative. In the certification agencies, it creates ways so that the consumers know the behavior of the companies in relation to the environment. As consulting independent, handspike the formation of small forests in e average ruais properties, generating benefits for the small communities. More still: the performance areas are not limited to these -- they continue growing.
Physical engineering is a branch of engineering without an area of defined performance, therefore if it intends versatile the sufficient to decide problems for a boarding to interdisciplinar, interacting frequëntemente with other specialties, such as electric engineering and engineering of materials.
The formation of the student of physical engineering aims at, therefore, to form a professional multispecialist and therefore it has a very bigger emphasis in you discipline basic, as mathematical, electronic, and mainly physical, of what other engineerings; beyond you discipline traditional, as Mechanics of Solids, Mechanic of fluid and Computer programming.
In Brazil the first course of physical engineering started to be offered by the Federal University of Is Carlos in 2000, but the course already exists has some decades in foreign universities.
In Portugal Physical engineering is offered in many Universities, already it has many years. Also it has courses in Applied and Physical Physics Technological. One soon selecção (random e, possibly, incomplete) of the courses in this area existing in Portugal includes of the College of Sciences of the University of Lisbon, of the College of Sciences and the Technology of the New University of Lisbon, of the Superior Institute the Technician of the University Technique of Lisbon, of the University of the Algarve, of the College of Sciences of the University of the Port, of the College of Sciences and the Technology of the University of Coimbra and of the University of Aveiro.
In 2006 the majority of the university courses in Portugal is in reorganization to be in agreement the “Process of Bologna”, what it means that the curricular plans will suffer deep alterations.
Geographic engineering is a branch of the engineering related with the acquisition and manipulation of geo-referenciada information, in particular to the level of techniques of space referencing and cartographic representation. Geógrafo Engineer develops work, of form directa or indirecta, in areas as:
* Cartographic production
* I register in cadastre and Order
* Technologies of the Geographic Information
* Projecto de Sistemas de Informação
* Aerospace technologies
* Systems of Geographic Information
* Remote detention
* Digital processing of image
* Geodesia or Geodésia
* Navigation and Control of Traffic
* Support to the construction of great workmanships of engineering (railway bridges, barrages, auto-roads and lines)
* Support to the management of resources and order of the territory (Agriculture, Geology, Forests and Environment)
* Control of deformation of workmanships
* Support to industrial and mining engineering
In Portugal, the licenciatura in Geographic engineering was created in the University of Lisbon, in the year of 1921, being today also given in the Universities of Porto and Coimbra. It is part of the group of the licenciaturas in engineering believed by the Order of the Engineers. Recently it was reorganized, in accordance with the Process of Bologna, in two cycles of preparation: one 1º cycle, with a duration of 3 years (6 semesters) and one 2ºciclo with a duration of 2 years (4 semesters). The good exploitation of the plans of studies of both the cycles confers the Permitted degree of in Geographic engineering.
hídrica engineering or hydraulical engineering is the branch of the civil engineering that deals with to the exploration and the use of the water, the projects and the fluvial or maritime hydraulical workmanships and of the projects and the workmanships of sanitary engineering.
The hydraulical engineer or of hídricos resources plans and guides the use of the water of hidrográficas basins, elaborating Plain Directors of Hidrógráficas Basins. It also develops plans of nets of water and sewers, irrigation and draining, beyond projecting canals, ports, piers, levees and break-seas and barrages. The professional also can follow the underground sheet exploration and the contaminated water treatment.
The organization, the initiative and the interest for social matters, ambient and ecological are some traces of personality that help the professional to have success in the work market.
The hídráulico engineer or of hídricos resources can act in hydraulical laboratories or companies of consultoria directed to the hidrológicos studies, projects of fluvial or maritime workmanships, creation of irrigation systems, draining, sanitation, bombardment and development of canals, ports and great barrages, project of or small hidrelétricas central offices (PCH). He can still develop projects of inquiry and remediation of ground and contaminated underground waters.
Brazil since Maurício de Nassau more possessed or produced some of the sanitaristas and hydraulical engineers respected in the World, such as Saturnine of Brito, Saturnine of Brito Son, Hildebrando Góes, Lucas Nogueira Garcez, Peter Parigot de Souza, Jose Martiniano de Azevedo Netto, Flávio Lyra, Díocles Rondon, Theophillo Ottonni, Marco Siciliano, Jorge Rios, Andres Scale amongst others.
In Brazil, the exercise of the profession demands registration in the Self-Regulating Body of the Engeneering Profession, Architecture and Agronomia (CREA).
human engineering is the branch of the engineering that approaches the impacts human of the projectos of engineering. In these branches of engineering such are enclosed areas as the Ergonomics, the Study of the Work and the Hygiene and Security in the Work. Also the areas of Industrial Sociology and Sociology of the organizations can be studied as complementary sciences of the human engineering.
engineering computer science
engineering computer science (or engineering of the computation) is the area of engineering of computer science. In the countries anglian-saxónicos, simply it is grouped with the computer science and the difference is not made, but this does not happen in the Latin countries of the Europe where engineering science or computer science and computer science (of the computers) is separate areas, although related.
engineering computer science involves some areas of performance:
* engineering of the programming
* Industrial computer science
* Computer systems
* Systems of information
The informáticos engineers and the engineer-technician are the professionals of engineering computer science.
Lumber engineering is the area of engineering where the physics and mathematics knowledge are used to transform the wood with the minimum of losses into the most diverse insumos, since coal, furniture, houses, utensilhos until paper and energy through the Biomass. The Mechanical Systems very englobam a vast area that engloba the agencies of machines, the thermodynamics, the climatization, the termotecnia, the science of the materials, etc.
engineering mechanics is the area of engineering where the physics and mathematics knowledge are used to project, to construct and to operate mechanical systems. The Mechanical Systems englobam the agencies of machines, the thermodynamics, the climatization, the termotecnia, the mechanic of fluid, the thermal mechanics of the materials, machines, etc. engineering mechanics intimamente are related the engineering of materials, thermal engineering and engineering of Manufacture. Therefore during the conception of any product the necessary engineer to define which more the material with the properties adjusted and lesser cost for that application and which the process of manufacture of that part. It can opt between molding, conformation, usinagem, forging, drawing etc. and which amongst these processes it will have minor ambient impact and this evaluation involves questions of expense of raw material and energy, thus entering in thermal engineering. engineering mechanics is the area of the engineering that takes care of of the development, the project, the construction and the maintenance of machines and equipment. The mechanical engineer develops and projects machines, equipment, vehicles, systems of heating and refrigeration and specific tools of the industry mechanics. Also he supervises its production. He calculates the necessary amount of raw material materials, provides molds of the parts that will be manufactured, he creates archetypes and he tests the products gotten. He organizes storage systems, he supervises processes and he defines norms and procedures of security for the production. He controls the quality, following and analyzing tests of resistance, calibrating and conferring measured. Vendas can be dedicated to it. Costuma to work as engineers electricians, of materials, production and automation and control, in the assembly and automation of systems, in the maintenance of aircraft and the industry of eletroeletrônicos.