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Mecatrônica is a branch of how much in such a way recent engineering one in Brazil here, having fond in 1989. Mecatrônica engineering also can be called engineering of control and automation that is a name more assimilated by the industry.
Mecatronica engineering is very next to the Control and Automation. The basic difference consists of the fact that the first one more is come back toward engineering mechanics, while second it has greater emphasis in Electronic engineering. Some Universities consider these courses as similar, while others offer them of distinct form. E Mecatronica engineering would be the fusing of three other courses that are Eletrica engineering, engineering Mechanics and Computer sciences, from there drift the Mecatronica name, or depending on the case, Control and Automation. Mecatronico Engineer is apt to develop controlled machines for computers logicamente similar to automatize processes and actions that can be or not repetitive, that is the Robots, then as said previously Mecatronico Engineer it is capable to project the electronic part, mechanics, and the logical part that he will go to control a robot. Additionally to this, this professional also is apt to project systems of usual controls, as the domestic gifts in ways of transport and utensils.
Metallurgic engineering is a branch of dedicated engineering to the study of the metallic materials, englobando its structural characterization, mechanical properties, production and processing. The metallurgic engineer is also the responsible one for the development of new metallic leagues, with physical properties, chemical and metallurgic adapted the diverse uses.
engineering of the materials
The engineering of the materials is a branch of engineering where the knowledge of physics and chemistry over all are used in the production of materials (new or classic) for the most diverse applications. It fits to the engineer of materials to study the structure, the properties and the applications of existing new materials or already, in the areas of metals, natural polymers, ceramic, materials or compósitos.
It also competes to the engineer of materials actuar in the phase of projecto in order to more choose the indicated materials for the desired applications.
military engineering is the branch of the engineering that gives to support to the activities of combat of the armies constructing easinesses such as: mined bridges, fields, roads, etc. and if puting in charge of the destruction of these same easinesses enemy it. Beyond its classic missions of support to the combat in war situation, it acts as pioneering or collaborating in the solution of infrastructure problems of the national development. Currently, in the Portuguese Army, the Weapon of engineering, although the name, is only one of the weapons and services to develop activities of Military engineering. The some specialties of engineering are developed in the following weapons and services:
* Weapon of engineering: it develops corresponding activities what it is called, it are of the military scope, of civil engineering
* Weapon of transmissions: activities of Electrotécnica engineering and engineering of telecommunications
* Service of Material: activities of engineering Mechanics and Electrotécnica engineering
For the performance of its functions the officers receive superior formation in engineering in the Military Academy from Portugal, and in the Military Academy of the Black Needles of Brazil.
engineering of mines
The engineering of Mines is the branch of the engineering that takes care of of the extration of ores of the nature and the separation of substances useful mineral cousins of those without exploitation. Using of the knowledge of diverse branches of science, particularly of the Geology of Chemistry and the Physics amongst others, the Engineer of Mines is, as well as the Geologist, a professional able to search the resources mineral (Mineral Research), such as: iron, aluminum, rocks, sand, mineral water, talco, amongst many others. She is the only professional able to make the planning and supervision of the ore withdrawal of the environment (It cultivates of Mine) through the most diverse techniques, as it cultivates the opened sky, using exactly explosive heavy machines or; it cultivates subaqueous, through dragagem or it cultivates underground, opening wells, tunnels and galleries; the preparation of this removed material (Ore Treatment), concentrating and separating the part that interests (Mineral or Mineral Useful) of the part that does not have value (Ganga); later to the withdrawal, it takes care of of the recovery of the area that was minerada (Ambient Recovery of Degraded Area), leaving the recouped environment, becoming it equal or better what it was found before it cultivates of the mine.
Thus, as an example, Brazil is the exporting and producing greater of iron of the world, explored from the Formations Ferríferas Bandadas. Mines with 90% of iron minerals meet gifts more than, that is almost the totality of the extracted mass is used to advantage. Already copper more than 90% of the removed material is formed of not usable material. In the case of the gold, more than 99% are discarded.
It still fits to the Engineer of Mines to take care of of the evaluation economic technique and of the mining enterprise, to evaluate and to reduce all the inherent risks to the work in places, the times, distant, with equipment weighed, worked with explosives. It still fits to take care of of the health and hygiene of the workers and to take care of so that any bothering or risks to the surrounding communities are minimized, as well as the o environment.
Federal universities that offer the course: UFCG, USP, UFPE, UFBA, UFOP, UFMG, UFPA, UFRGS
naval and oceanic engineering
naval and Oceanic engineering is the branch of the engineering that has as main activity the engineering workmanships that if they destine to explore the potentialities of the sea. With the development of the exploration and production of oil in the ocean, the work of the naval engineer extended Oceanic engineering to it.
The naval engineer dedicates all to it the phases of the life of the vehicles and platforms destined to the maritime transport, the exploration of the marine resources and the activities of recreation, since the phase of conception and projecto, to the one of construction and respective fiscalization, passing for the inspecção, maintenance and repairing. The tasks of planning and management of the maritime and port operations are still enclosed.
The traditional areas of job are the naval shipyards, companies of certification, quality and security guard, companies shipowners, companies of services and consultoria in engineering, technician-commercial organisms of the state, companies, inquiry and docência. The related industries more are the construction and naval repairing, you fish and maritime transports.
In the part of Oceanic engineering, practically all the main companies of the petroliferous branch use naval engineers for the accomplishment of exploration projects and production of oil in the sea.
However the course has a solid formation of structures and mechanic of fluid, and jobs in the automobile and aeronautical area are frequent.
In Brazil three universities exist that form naval engineers: The University of São Paulo, Federal University of Rio De Janeiro and the Federal University of Pará.
engineering of fishes
The engineering of fishes is a branch of the engineering applied to fishes. One becomes related with naval engineering, but it also includes the conception and perfectioning of arts of fishes, methods and devices of fished detention of and also of methods of transport, improvement and storage of the fished one in land and on board the boats. It applies basic knowledge of biology, the accurate ciencias (physical, mathematical and chemical) in three great areas: it fishes it (capture), the aquicultura (creation of aquatic organisms) and industrialization (improvement and transformation).
oil engineering is the area of the engineering that deals with all the branches related to the oil industry and, in particular, to related to the exploration and the production.
In Brazil, the profession of the oil engineer is recognized for the CONFEA - Federal Advice of engineering, Architecture and Agronomy - in its Resolution nº 218, of 29 of June of 1973. This resolution, in its art. 16, establish that the oil engineer is qualified to play all the 18 activities established for the professional exercise of engineering, “referring the sizing, evaluation and exploration of petroliferous deposits, transports and industrialization of the oil; its similar services and correlatos”. The first course of engineering of Oil of Brazil was created by the State University of Norte Fluminense (UENF) in its Laboratory of engineering of Exploration of Petróleo (LENEP).
In São Paulo, the first course of graduation in the area of engineering of Oil for the USP (University of São Paulo) in 2002 was created. This course is developed by the Polytechnical School and is under administration of the Department of engineering of Mines and Petróleo (PMI).
The oil engineering normally is divided in six basic areas:
* engineering of reservoirs.
* well engineering/perforation.
* well engineering/completação.
* Process of production.
* Economy of the oil.
* Technology offshore.
During century XIX a revolution occurred that forever changed the form of the man to work, to think, to produce… forever changed the relation of the man with the machine. This revolution had origin in England and soon it was spread for the remaining portion of the world. All we know that we are speaking of the Industrial Revolution. But what it has to see with the engineering of Production? Everything. With the progress in the industrial sector of the time, the necessity appeared to organize and to manage complexes production systems; from then on, the engineering of Production fincou its bases. However, it was at the beginning of this century that its diffusion was intensified, basing basically on the industry metalo-mechanics. Other factors as the recent Japanese development and the adoption of thematic of the Quality & the Productivity as points private, public, industrial central offices in the companies and organizations, services and of governments, had consolidated this diffusion. In its origin they are personalities as Frederick W. Taylor, Frank and Lílian Gilbreth, Henry Gantt, Walter. the Shewart, Henry Fayol, Henry Ford, and others.