Civil engineering

civil engineering

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engineering is the activity where the scientific knowledge are used to decide practical problems.
civil engineering is the branch of the engineering that projecta and executes workmanships as buildings, bridges, viaducts, roads, barrages and works of fluvial and maritime hydraulical.
The civil engineer projecta and folloies all the stages of a construction and/or whitewashing. He must study the characteristics of the ground, incidence of the wind, destination (or occupation) of the construction.
On the basis of these data, develop the project, dimensionando and specifying the structures, the nets of electric, hidro-sanitary installations and gas, as well as the materials to be used. In the workmanship cabinet, it commands you equip them, supervising the stated periods, the costs and the fulfilment of the security norms, health and environment. It fits to guarantee the security to it of the construction, demanding that the materials empregues in workmanship are in accordance with the norms techniques in vigor.
Civil engineering has, of some form, relations with all the activities human beings. The professional of civil engineering exerts its activity in:
* Area technique, as project elaboration
* Managemental area, as execution of workmanship, management of companies or departments of great companies
* Financial area, as wallet management of corporative customers (companies) in banks or financial institutions
For making possible an ample variety of professional performance, civil engineering still offers great chance to its professionals, making possible that these that if dedicate to the good académica formation have success later, in its career.
agronômica engineering
agricultural engineering
food engineering
engineering of the environment
aeronautical engineering
engineering of audio
biological engineering
biomedical engineering
cartographic engineering
civil engineering
engineering of the computation
engineering of control and automation
control engineering
instrumentation engineering
económica engineering
electric engineering
structural engineering
engineering of telecommunications
forest engineering
physical engineering
geographic engineering
hídrica engineering
human engineering
engineering computer science
lumber engineering
engineering of materials
military engineering
engineering of mines
naval engineering
engineering of fishes
oil engineering
production engineering
chemical engineering
sanitary engineering
engineering of systems
fabric engineering
textile engineering
agronômica engineering

The Engineer Agronomist is a professional with capacity to carry through scientific analysis, to identify and to decide problems, to be worried about permanent update of knowledge and to take decisions with the purpose to always operate, to modify and to create farming and agro-industrial systems if worrying about the social aspects and of sustentabilidade. Essential the professional content, is composed of destined substances the characterization of the Farming professional identity. Moreover, the professional account with substances of specific professional contents.
The Engineer Agronomist possue great knowledge of vegetal, chemical biology, biochemist, ground, interaction between the plant and the ground, handling of plants and animals, zoonozes, control of agricultural and urban plagues, beyond general slight knowledge of Agricultural engineering, Forest, Zootecnia and too much areas correlatas.
The traditional professional oldest and of the Brazilian agricultural sector is considered.
agricultural engineering
agricultural engineering is the profession that it searchs to solve problems that affect the development of the agronegócio, supplying necessary solutions of engineering to the productivity increase, reduction of costs, the preservation and the conservation of the involved natural resources. In the agricultural sector, the demands occur with intense and complex evolution, demanding always more than the professionals who in them act. In this context, the necessity of scientific and technological knowledge for the development of a farming rational exists. During the course the student of agricultural engineering learns to project and to develop systems of irrigation and draining; project of agricultural constructions and installations and ambiência for animals; planning of automation systems and control; planning and management of agricultural productions; meteorological monitoramento, forecast of agricultural harvests and agroclimático zoning; topographical surveys for workmanships and land divisions, use of remote sensoriamento and air photographs in the agricultural planning and the ambient monitoramento; planning of drying systems and conservation of products after the harvest, as well as its processing and development of adequate packings; planning of systems of agricultural energização, rational use of energy, alternative systems of generation and, more recently, use of the laser in agriculture and digital processing of images, in which programming techniques are used. The course possesss one ambient characteristic fort, mainly in what it refers to to the adequate use of the hídricos resources and the ground, acting in the conservation of the quality of the water and the ground, as well as in the handling and treatment of liquid and solid residues generated by the agricultural processes. At last, the formed professional of Agricultural engineering possesss a solid base of engineering with application focada in the solution of the ambient problems technician and of the Brazilian agronegócio.
It is important to remember that, even so the course is classified as being of agrarian sciences, all its structure and curricular grating is based on accurate sciences (Calculation, Matématica, Physics), beyond disciplines related to engineerings that contribute for the Agricultural development, such as engineerings mechanics, electric, civil and knowledge of computer science, programming and automation. Such knowledge, allies to the agronômicos knowledge of the professional, form the perfect combination for the resolution of complex problems in the agricultural sector. Reason for which, the professional of Agricultural engineering if has become essential in agricultural sectors highly tecnificados.
Curiosity: (Agricultural Engineer) is very common enters less the most clarified the confusion enters the professional of Agricultural engineering and the professional of Egenharia Agronômica (Agronomist), valley to point out here that these professionals, even so can 0ccasionally act in similar areas, inside dominate areas of knowledge different of the farming sector, not having therefore, this being taken for that one and vice turns.
food engineering
The food engineering is the area of chemical engineering directed to the production and technology of foods.
WHAT It is FOOD engineering
It is an area of specific knowledge capable to englobar all the elements related with the food industrialization, and that it can through the professional with this formation, to potencializar the development of this branch in all the levels; either in the formation of professionals, the subsidy to the elaboration of politics, in the projects of research, the performance inside of the companies of the sector, as in the contribution to the preservation of the public health (normatização technique, orientation and fiscalization).
Currently the profession of Food Engineer very is spread out, mainly in the industrialized countries more, where it plays each time more activities related with excellency. It has that to stand out itself despite, in the case of these countries, many chances of interchange with Brazil exist, making possible the contact with tip technologies, for posterior adaptation and application to our conditions.
The Food engineering is a character profession to multidiscipline. It encloses diverse areas of the human knowledge, but especially two:
ACCURATE CIENCIAS (engineering). Applied mathematics. Fisico-Quimica. Thermodynamics. Unitárias operations
. Bioquimica
. Microbiology
. Nutrition
. Substances Cousins
This character to multidiscipline of the profession is consequence of the type of necessary information for the domain of the processing technology of foods. She is necessary to know with depth foods:
. the different types (meats, fruits, hortaliças, laticínios, grains etc.),
. its composition (proteins, sugars, vitamins, lipídios, etc.)
. its biochemist (enzymatic reactions, breath, maturation, aging, etc.)
. its microbiology (characteristic microorganisms, deterioration, etc.)
. sensorial characteristics (flavor, texture, aroma, etc.)
E the diverse techniques and processes:
. improvements (milling, extration of pulps, juices, oils, etc.)
. thermal treatments (pasteurização, sterilization, freezing, liofilização, etc.)
. biotechnology (enzymatic fermentation, treatments, etc.)
. job of ingredients and raw materials
e also food packings, that are strict on to the this area.
To promote the correct interaction between process x food aiming at; the control of the conditions that provide the desired standards of quality; the evolution of traditional techniques; e the viabilização of unknown products in the market.
The intention of the course of Food engineering is to prepare professional capable to inside play the activities of engineering of the Industries of the branch of the Feeding, developing productive projects and processes, from the characteristics of product quality, objectifying the otimização of the resources and increase of the productivity. Of this form, beyond the basic formation (Accurate and Biological Sciences), the course offers disciplines in the area of Sciences Human beings, aiming at to introduce the administrative concepts for the managemental activities.
The Food Engineer acts inside of the following segments:
. Industry of Nourishing Products
. Industry of Insumos for Processes and Products (raw materials, equipment, packings, additives)
. Companies of Services
. Agencies and Public Institutions
. Development of new products and packings for foods
exerting its activities in the following areas:
Rationalization and productive improvement of processes and flows for increment of the quality and productivity, and for reduction of the industrial costs.
Determination of the standards of quality for the processes (since the raw material until the transport of the end item), planning and implantation of structures for analysis and monitoramento of these processes, and training of staff for practical of the quality as operational routine.
Development of products and technologies with objective to reach new markets, reduction of wastefulnesses, reutilização of by-products and exploitation of available natural resources.
Planning, execution and implantation of projects of units of processing (“plant industrial layout”, installations, equipment), as well as its economic feasibility study.
Use of the knowledge technician as distinguishing of marketing in the prospection and opening of markets, in the assistance technique, the development of products next to the customers and support to the area of vendas.
Performance next to the governmental bodies of municipal, state and federal scope, objectifying the establishment of standards of quality and identity of products, and in the application of these standards for the industries, thus guaranteeing, the rights of the consumer.

engineering of the environment
The engineering of the environment is a branch of the engineering that studies the ambient problems of form integrated in its dimensions ecological, social, económica and technological, with sight to promote a development sustainable.
Performance of the ambient engineer
As any engineer, the ambient engineer has for function to decide concrete problems, appealing to the technology. For this reason, its market of work is sufficiently heterogéneo and was distributed for: central administration, its decentralized services the regional level, local administration, indústriais companies, companies of consultoria, companies of services, ONGs, institutions of inquiry and superior education.
One of the aptitudes that must be developed by the ambient engineer, is the evaluation of the duration, magnitude and reversibility of the alterations caused for the activity human being in the environment independently of its adverse or beneficial nature. The first course of Ambient engineering created was of the Luterana University of Brazil (ULBRA), campus of Canoas (RS), for the Resolution Consun/ULBRA N. 45, of 31 of October of 1991, subsidized for Parecer N. 1,031, of 06 of December of 1989, that it was only initiated in 01 of March of 1994. Already the first course that entered in functioning was of the University of Federal of Tocantins (UFT), in 09 of March of 1992, that it was created by the Resolution CESu n 118, of 19 of December of 1991 (BRAZIL, 2004a; UFT, s.d.). He is valid still, to remember that in 2003 beginning to the course of in one of the greaters and more was given appraised University of the Country, the USP in the campus of Are Carlos, counting on a cast of professors very appraised in the area, the majority of happened them of the course of sanitary engineering. The CEFET-RJ created in 1999 and placed in functioning the first course of Technologist in Ambient Control in Brazil.
aeronautical engineering
aeronautical engineering is the branch of in charge engineering it project of airplanes, helicopters and spaceships. Being the Aeronautical Engineer also capable to act in the aeroaespacial area.
aeronautical engineering is an area of complex study that involves the study of project of aircraft, maintenance, scientific certification of aeronavegabilidade and areas.
They are part of the basic formation of an aeronautical engineer you discipline of calculation, analytical, Usual algebra, Equations Distinguishing, Physical, Chemical geometry, Electricity and Magnetism, Statistics and Dynamics.
Of the basic formation in engineering it has if you discipline of drawing mechanical technician, metrologia, mechanics of solids, mechanic of fluid, electronics, digital technology, elements of machines, thermodynamics and transport of heat and mass.
Inside of the specific area of formation in aeronática engineering it has if aeroelasticity, aerodynamics incompressível, aerodynamic three-dimensional, aerodynamic compressible, aerodynamic computational and aerodynamic experimental. Mechanics of aeronautical, material structures of aeronática construction, fatigue and breaking of materials, dynamic systems of aircraft, propulsion.
In many universities aeronautical engineering is especially on engineering mechanics, being lecionada engineering mechanics with emphasis in aircraft.
This course exists in the USP (University of São Paulo) since 2002, where previously a course of Eng existed. Mechanics with emphasis in aircraft since 1981, the ITA (Technological Institute of the Aeronautics), in the UFMG (Federal University of Minas Gerais) through the CEA (Center of Aeronautical Studies) since 1975.

engineering of audio
The engineering of Audio chore with the manipulation of the sound. Had to its work, the engineer of audio also is called sound engineer. An engineer of audio needs to deal with writing and manipulation of sound for electric and electronic ways. The basic knowledge of an engineer of audio include engineering, acoustics, psicoacústica, computer science and music electric. It is important to stand out that engineering of audio is different of engineering acoustics. What it differentiates an engineer of audio of an acoustic engineer is that the last one works with the quality of the sound, including noise and pureness, beyond design of environments.
The work of an engineer of audio involves the creation, installation and operation of equipment of writing and manipulation of audio, beyond equipment for transmission and emission of audio. Inside of a studio, an engineer is responsible for the part technique of the writing, manipulation, mixagem and masterização of the sound. Engineers of audio have a field of extensive work, including audio production of for film and television, sound to the living creature, production for radio, propaganda, multimedia, beyond the creation of special effect e, obviously, music.
The engineer of audio operates tables of mixagem, microphones, softwares of digital manipulation, peripheral equipment for analogical writing, loudspeakers and equipment for effect and adjustments of sound. In a studio, the engineer of audio generally works with the producer of the album, if puting in charge aspects to them technician of the writing.

biological engineering
biological engineering or biotechnology is the application of the principles of biology and engineering to the processing of materials, through biological agents, to provide good and to assure services.
This branch of engineering also uses to advantage the application of mathematics knowledge, chemistry, physics and economy, among others to the conception, development and operation of installations or instruments that allow to the use of organisms livings creature.
Biological agents
It can be understood as biological agents cells in general and its molecules (enzymes, antibodies, DNA, etc.) on which must have necessary basic knowledge.
It is important to know the Microbiology, Biochemist, Genetics, Chemistry among others referring to the organism and/or chosen molecule as agent of biotechnological process.
The biotechnology and the microbiology are used to develop techniques that allow to cultivate microorganisms to produce medicines, to the example of antibiotics, or foods as the production of cells of strawberry to get commercial changes. Beyond the cited ones, processes can be developed that allow the treatment of sanitary dejections for the action of microorganisms.
Biotechnology: passed and future
Already in the seniority the processes of bread production and leavend drinks were known. Also the Aztecs cultivated in lakes varieties of used seaweed as food sources.
From century XIX, with the progress of sciences, especially the microbiology, had great advances in the technology of the fermentations.
At the beginning of century XX techniques of fabric culture had been developed. In the end of the decade of 1970, genetic engineering revolutionized “classic” biological engineering giving origin what we call “new” Biotechnology.
Currently one becomes possible, in some cases, “to convince” a cell to make something for which it “was not programmed”, therefore genetic engineering, through techniques of biological engineering obtains geneticamente to modify microorganisms with desired characteristics. Using it methods of molecular biology associates to computer science, are possible also the automation and control in the vegetable culture in industrial scale.
Thanks to biological engineering already some products in the world-wide market had been launched. In some cases, as of the insulina and the hormone of the growth. The innovation consisted of substituting the traditional methods of attainment. In other cases, as to the monoclonais antibodies, one is about entirely new products.
biomedical engineering
Functioning of the Human Body
The engineering techniques can be applied to the study of the human body. In this optics, an engineer is interested in the transport and the transformation of foods, blood and oxigénio in the human body, with the properties of the materials that constitute it, with the distribution of chemical elements and the properties of fabrics. These information are used to produce models of the human body with which it is possible to foresee the effect of the therapeutical ones to effect.
Biomateriais and development of próteses
Determined people, it wants due the accidents, degenerative illnesses or the physical deficiencies, can need próteses. These próteses have that to be adjusted to the function the one that if destine. For this new more compatible materials with the human body are developed. These materials have to obey a vast number of parameters in order to be biocompatíveis. The biocompatibilidade is essential for in-alive implementation of the biomateriais, in order to minimize any possible reactions of rejection. As an example, it is to relate the sterility of the biomaterial, that is an extremely important property in the àrea of the biomateriais.

cartographic engineering
cartographic engineering is a branch of dedicated engineering the production of geoespacial knowledge, notadamente by means of topographical letters, nautical letters, aeronautical letters, maps, plants, SIGs - Systems of Geographic Information, remote sensoriamento, altimetric, planimetric, barometric, topographical, aerophotogrammetry surveys, etc., necessary the construction of great workmanships of engineering, as roads, bridges, hidroelétricas, airports, etc.

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