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Illumination

Illumination


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House Architecture and Construction


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The gas light bulb, the lighting system with oil and the Illumination of incandescence had been the intermediate stages in the evolution of the methods of Illumination, since the direct Illumination by means of torches until the invention of the electric light bulb.
The term Illumination in such a way assigns a effect of the luminous radiation, either it natural or produced artificially, how much the set of devices, sources and focos of light destined to improve the conditions of visibility in an environment, to give has detached objects or to embelezar some of its aspects. The term also assigns each one of the techniques that use artificial light bulbs and devices for specific purposes, as teatral Illumination, photographic Illumination and others.
Types and units of Illumination. Second either destined to cover limited areas or entire spaces, the Illumination can general or be located. In accordance with the way as the environment or object happens on to illuminate, can be direct -- where the light rays go directly of the source to the illuminated object -- or indirect, where the rays after illuminate to reflect themselves, to difratar themselves or to refract themselves.
The unit of largeness with that if it measures the Illumination of an environment calls lux. It is equivalent to the Illumination of a surface of a square meter on which a luminous flow of one lumen happens (unit of flow), distributed in way uniform. Lux also is defined as the Illumination of a surface whose points if find at a distance of a meter of a luminous source with one intensity candela.
In the electric lighting systems of the streets and squares of a city, it is important to distribute the light sources correctly, of form to get the income maximum. The façades of commercial establishments are characterized for the abundant and colored Illumination that, more than to illuminate, it aims at to call the attention the potential clientele. Thus, the urban commercial centers use the light of fluorescent pipes where if they use gases as the neon, the mercury vapor etc. In the discotecas, the light games form set with music: the light bulbs and reflectors, controlled automatically, if light and erase, blinking with great rapidity to the rhythm of music. To obtain this effect, costuma to use sodium light bulbs.
The growth of the road transport and the increase of the nocturnal traffic demand, modernly, a good permanent Illumination in the highways and roads of access to the population centers. The points of light of the roads and ways of access are in general of mercury vapor and are installed in very high poles in order to prevent the ofuscamento and, at the same time, to illuminate long stretches of road. As much in the cities how much in the highways, these lights if automatically light and erase when the natural light becomes scarce or resurges, thanks to a photoelectric cell that also acts during thick fogs and eclipses.
For the same reason, one became necessary to equip the vehicles with lighthouses of power enough to allow that the driver perceives the obstacles without dimming the vehicles that pass through in contrary direction. The lighthouses of the automobiles can illuminate below of the horizontal plan (low lighthouse) when crossing with other vehicles, or operating more with opened beam of light (high lighthouse), that if active when does not have movement in contrary direction.
The industrial Illumination narrowly is related with requirements of productivity and security. The mines, the airports and, in general, all the installations where the work if does not interrupt at night, as refineries, steel mills, power plants etc., permanently keep illuminated the activity zones.
Progress of the artificial Illumination. Since that the man learned to use the fire, discovered that one of its more useful applications was to be able to draw out the hours of light beyond the one put-of - the sun. Numerous destined artifices had been invented to illuminate great aposentos, some of them of notable ingenuity. Leonardo of the Vinci, for example, idealized one complicated light bulb that allowed it to work at night without harming the sight. In century XVIII the public Illumination of the cities most important started to be made with lanterns or oil light bulbs, following itself, shortly afterwards, the use of the Illumination to the gas. Meanwhile, the houses started to be illuminated by lampiões of acetylene.
In 1879, the invention of the incandescent light bulb for Thomas Edison revolutionized the techniques of Illumination. Exactly functioning precariously, if compared with the modern lighting systems, I invent it of Edison had immediate application in many residences and workstations. However, the Illumination for light bulbs of incandescent filament excessively expensive age for the great cities, that they needed many points of light of great power. To decide the problem, in the decade of 1930 the pipes fluorescent had been created, capable to provide powerful and practically white light, with consumption of very inferior electricity to the one of the light bulbs.
With the job of new technologies, sources of light for specific uses had been produced: focos of quartz for photograph, cinema and spectacles; small used focos of light in microsurgery; e special sources of light, as the rays laser, ultraviolet and infra-red ray, beyond lenses, optic reflectors and other devices with that if it extends the capacity of the focus of light.
Artificial environment Illumination. The Illumination of residences, beyond its main purpose, constitutes a basic element of the decoration and contributes so that the house if becomes a pleasant environment. A residence with abundant natural light more will be valued than another one with little Illumination. In workstations, one gives to more attention the functional criteria to determine the adequate Illumination. It is needed enough light for the good course of the activities, but it must also be considered the cost of installation and maintenance of the points of artificial light, in order to reduce in the possible measure do the energy consumption. The solution more frequently adopted by the majority of the companies is the generalized installation, at intervals regular, of fluorescent pipes. Some point of incandescent light in environments adds eventually where this is necessary.
©Encyclopaedia Britannica of Brazil Ltda Publications.

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