In this sample of decoration carried through in the city of Botucatu - SP, the architect created one home to teather thematic, using two enormous panels of the Marilyn Monroe atemporal icon of the cinema as cloth of deep.
Also compact disc " s in circular format created an installation with about 500, generating a great impact and many nuances of color… Finally, dark colors and an indirect and subtle illumination had created a aconchegante and intimista atmosphere to the environment. The architect Patricia Mellilo comes if detaching in the region with works in some cities, between them Is Manuel, Avaré, Jaú, São Paulo Bauru, Sheets, Botucatu, Areópolis, Pretty Bar, Igaraçu of the Tietê and also in the city of São Paulo.
It sees photos of the constructions.
It sees the projects.
The architecture - (of the Greek arché - αρχή = first or main and tékton - τέχνη = construction) it is the art or technique to project and to build the environment inhabited for the human being. When it is said in architecture is said, between many other things, of the organization of the space. The architecture as activity human being exists since that the man passed if to shelter from intempéries. A more necessary definition of the area all involves design of the environment constructed for the man, what engloba since the furniture drawing (industrial drawing) until the drawing of the landscape (paisagismo) and the city (urbanism), passing for the drawing of constructions (considered the activity most common of the architects), as building, houses, churches, etc. The work of the architect involves, therefore, all the scale of the life of the man, since the manual until the urban one.
Although the presentation above to be more easily found in dictionaries, is possible to describe the architecture in accordance with its raw material: the space, or to be more specific, the internal space. Before building contruções or building, the architect works essentially with the construction of the space. This theory was synthecized by the Italian architect Bruno Zevi.
“Architecture is petrified music” (Goethe)
First, the manifest architecture if in two different ways: the activity (the art, the field of work of the architect) and the physical result (
constructed set of an architect, a people and the humanity as a whole).
The architecture while activity is a field to multidiscipline, including in its base the mathematics, sciences, the arts, the technology, social sciences, the politics, history, the philosophy, among others. Being a complex activity, it is difficult to appraise it of necessary form, form that the word has diverse meanings and the activity has diverse unfoldings.
Currently, oldest treated architectural to that if it has notice, and that it considers an architecture definition, it is of Roman architect Marco Vitrúvio Polião. In its words:
“The architecture is a science, appearing of many others, and decorated with many and varied teachings: for the aid of which a judgment is formed of those works that are the result of the other arts.”
The definition of Vitrúvio, although inserted in a proper context, practically constitutes the base for all the done study of this art, and for all the interpretations until the present time. Despite diverse theoreticians, mainly of modernity, have lead studies that oppose diverse aspects of the vitruviano thought, this still can be synthecized and be considered universal for the architecture (mainly when interpreted, of different forms, for each time), either the activity, either the patrimony.
Vitrúvio declares that an architect would have well to be turned in fields as music, astronomy, etc. the philosophy, in particular, is distinguished: in fact when somebody is mentioned to “philosophy of determined architect” wants to mention to its boarding of the problem architectural. The rationalism, the empirismo, the estruturalismo, after-estruturalismo and the fenomenologia are some of the directions of the philosophy that had influenced the architects.
In the workmanship of Vitrúvio, the three basic elements of the architecture are defined: the firmitas (that one mentions to the stability, when constructive carácter of the architecture), the utilitas (that originally is mentioned to the comfort and throughout history was associated with the function and the utilitarismo) and venustas (associated to the beauty and the aesthetic appreciation).
In such a way, and according to this point of view, a construction passes to be called architecture when, beyond firm and being well structuralized (firmitas), to possess a function (utilitas) and will be, mainly, beautiful (venustas). It has that to notice that Vitrúvio contextualizava the beauty concept according to classic concepts. Therefore, venustas was, throughout history, one of the elements polémicos of the some definitions of the architecture.
A necessary definition of architecture is impossible, as already he was salient, given its amplitude. As the too much arts and sciences, it it passes for constant changes. However, the excerpt to follow, written for Lúcio Costa, costuma to enjoy of certain unamimity how much to its abrangência.
“Architecture is before more nothing construction, but, construction conceived with the primordial intention to command and to organize the space for definitive purpose and being aimed at the determined intention. E in this basic process to command and to express it equally shows plastic art, inasmuch as in the myriad problems with that if she confrots the architect, since the germination of the project, until the conclusion she accomplishes of the workmanship, she always has, for each in case that specific, certain final edge of option between the limits - maximum and minimum - determined by the calculation, praised for the technique, conditional for the way, complained for the function or taxes for the program, - fitting then to the individual feeling it architect, in what it has of artist, therefore, to choose in scales of the values contained between two values extremities, appropriate the plastic form to each detail in function of the last unit of the idealized workmanship.”
This definition is understood as a consensus therefore it summarizes practically all a half of thought century architectural: the vision of Lúcio Costa synthecizes the some theories proposals for pertaining architects to the modern architecture. Data that the modern looked for to place itself not as plus one between some styles, but as effectively the architecture, and its vision of world became predominant, it became finally a consensus. The teorização proposal for the modern architecture engloba, however, also all the architecture produced before it, since manifest it that the architecture appears of a program, incorporating clearly social, cultural, economic and artistic the 0 variable of the historical moment. In the measure where the historical moments are heterogeneous, the modern definition of the architecture does not bastardize none another historical manifestation, but actively combat the copy of other historical moments at the moment contemporary.
When classification of the different products is thought about some type architectural observed in the time and in the space, it is very common, especially on the part of the considered population more “layperson”, to differentiate the buildings and small farms through the idea of that they possess a diverse style one of the other.
Traditionally, the style notion involves the apprehension of a certain set of factors and formal characteristics of the buildings: that is, the style definition most primordial is that one that associates it with the form of the architecture, and mainly its aesthetic-constructive details. From this notion, it has been broken then, of course, for the idea of that different styles possess different rules. E, therefore, these rules could be used in specific cases. The architecture, while profession, according to this point of view, would be reduced to a simple meeting of compositivas rules and its systematization.
This is an idea that, after the some modern movements of the architecture (and same the after-modern, that had come back to debate the style) became exceeded and apaixonadamente fought. The architecture, at least in the theoretical and academic plan, passed to be understood through what effectively it defines it: the work with the inhabitable space. What he was considered style it passed to be called simply historical moment or school. Although to be a pparently banal rupture, it if it shows extremely deep in the measure where it places a new 0 variable: if the historicistas and estilísticas definitions of the architecture are not valid more, the style leave of being an widely copied model and start to be the expression of the individual interpretations of each architect (or group of architects), of what it considers as architecture.
Urbanism is the activity of study, regulation, control and planning of the city (in its ampler direction) and of the urbanization. Urbanism reveals, therefore, as a science human being applied inserted in the context of a world in constant demographic growth and answering to one strong pressure of civilization and urbanity, facing its demands and problems. In a simplista perspective, urbanism corresponds to the action to project and to command the cities. However, under a ampler point of view, urbanism can in such a way be understood as a set of practical or ideas, how much as an ideological form that it aims at to reproduce the general conditions in the way of capitalist production. According to this point of view, currently in such a way the Capital how much the State if appropriates of the practical one and theory (understanding them as ideology) of urbanism as a generating mechanism of profit.
Therefore, the study of urbanism it must be an activity highly to multidiscipline and complex that dialogues mainly with the architecture (in its more common direction), with the architecture of the landscape, design and with the politics. It needs the contribution of areas of the knowledge as the social ecology, geology, sciences, geography and other sciences.
The word was used for the first time for Catalan engineer Ildefons Cerdà, responsible for the project of magnifying of Barcelona in the decade of 1860.
Cerdà, during the period, synthecized the some studies on the existing cities and its project in its general Theory of the urbanization, in which it presented the term, in 1867.
The paisagismo (also called for architecture of the landscape, paisagista architecture or paisagística architecture) is the art and technique to promote the project, planning, management and preservation of free, urban spaces or not, of form to process micron and macro-landscapes.
Since the boarding of the problem of design of the landscape is similar to the faced one in the architecture, as much is considered that the landscape is a to be constructed element, how much the buildings and the urban environment: of this form, the architecture of the landscape is an extension of the architecture, as it disciplines, of a ampler form.
Originally related only to the drawing of gardens and squares, considering only the aesthetic and scenic aspects of the project of a place, the paisagismo throughout the time was accumulating of stocks bigger scales and proposals, arriving if to confuse with the urban drawing and incorporating relative the partner-economic 0 variable to the problems in question.
While profession, the paisagista architecture encloses a set of disciplines related to the project architectural, the regional and urban planning, the preservation of the natural and constructed environment and the historic site, to the planning of systems of leisure and recreation and sinteticamente to the space planning.
The architecture of the landscape is, as well as the proper architecture, a field to multidiscipline, involving the mathematics, natural sciences and social, engineering, the arts, the technology, the politics, etc. Although normally to be associated with the jardinagem for the lay public, the paisagista architecture involves all the possible constituent elements of the landscape, is natural they or not.
Civil construction is the term that engloba the confection of workmanships as houses, building, bridges, barrages, foundations of machines, roads and airports, where architects participate and civil engineers in contribution with technician of others you discipline.
In Brazil, the ABNT (Brazilian Association of Norms Techniques) regulates the norms and the CREA (Self-Regulating Body of the Engeneering Profession, Architecture and Agronomy) fiscalizes the exercicio of the profession and the civil liability. All workmanship of civil construction must previously be approved by the orgãos
competent municipal theatres, and folloied by engineers or architects registered in the CREA.
In responsible Portugal the technician for the projectos of civil construction (exceptuando the case of the projectos of buildings of small dimension, which can have as responsible technician qualified with the old course of Constructor Civil and Mestrança, now assigned by Agents Technician of Architecture and Engineering) has that to be titular of a superior course, baccalaureate or licenciatura and has that to be, respectively, enrolled in the National association of Engenheiros Técnicos (ANET) or in the Order of the Engineers. For projectos of great responsibility, the baccalaureate is not considered enough formation, and the Portuguese legislation demands that the responsible technician is titular of a licenciatura in Civil Engineering.
Civil engineering is the branch of the engineering that projecta and executes workmanships as buildings, bridges, viaducts, roads, barrages and works of fluvial and maritime hydraulical.
The civil engineer projecta and folloies all the stages of a construction and/or whitewashing. He must study the characteristics of the ground, incidence of the wind, destination (or occupation) of the construction.
On the basis of these data, develop the project, dimensionando and specifying the structures, the nets of electric, hidro-sanitary installations and gas, as well as the materials to be used. In the workmanship cabinet, it commands you equip them, supervising the stated periods, the costs and the fulfilment of the security norms, health and environment. It fits to guarantee the security to it of the construction, demanding that the materials empregues in workmanship are in accordance with the norms techniques in vigor.
Civil Engineering has, of some form, relations with all the activities human beings. The professional of Civil Engineering exerts its activity in: Area technique, as project elaboration
Managemental area, as execution of workmanship, management of companies or departments of great companies
Financial area, as wallet management of corporative customers (companies) in banks or financial institutions. For making possible an ample variety of professional performance, Civil Engineering still offers great chance to its professionals, making possible that these that if dedicate to the good académica formation have success later, in its career.
The modernization of the Civil Construction
Architecture today cannot be summarized only to a project, a residential geometric drawing or of a condominium, the construction must be analyzed as a whole, of engineering for its construction until the details established for the architect, or architect, with a work in conjundo with the engineer. These are not the only involved professionals in the construction, also have other areas correlatas as the paisagismo, urbanism the decoration and many other areas that direct influence in the result has architectural. Paisgista, decorator, city planner, design are only some professionals among whom if they detach with the result of the constructions, and in the base of this work, other professionals exist many, who although not to appear in such a way, are so important for the result of the workmanship how much all those already cited. Façade, roofs, masonry, interiors, choice of the colors, illumination, lights, gardens, plaster are only some elements that deserve the attention of the professionals to make the difference in the constructions. For this work, today the development of the projects has the aid of computer science, two of the used programs more for the architecture is the AutoCAD and the ArchiCAD, this with the possibility to generate electronic mockups. One of the moments of bigger prominence of the works in the civil construction is feras and samples of the sector, as the Feicon, sample of decoration, sample of architecture, sample of decoration of interiors, where we can observe all the styles, of a simple decoration to the one luxury decoration, passing for an alternative decoration. In the region some cities if detach for the work architectural historical of the cities if they detach, as it is the case of Bauru Are Manuel, Botucatu, Jaú, São Paulo Lençois, Avaré, Pretty Bar, among others cities of the interior, but the great prominence of the architecture in the state is the São Paulo capital, the architecture of São Paulo. A project architectural is not the only element that the architect produces, it practically must be present in all the stages of the workmanship that of direct or indirect form go to influence in the aesthetic one of the project. The civil construction comes if modernizing to each day and specialized magazines as: Architecture & Construction and House & Garden, vehicles among others specialized of informalção, show this evolution. Today it would engenheria it civil, almost does not have more limits in the construction, the engineers civil surpasses to each day the constructive problems, increasing the quality and diminishing costs of the sector. A workmanship never was so well planned as it is made nowadays, project of Interiors, project of decoration, project of reform, project of paisagismo, project of urbanism, project architectural, project of roof, project of façade, project of illumination, structural project, Interiors and garden, for each phase of the workmanship exists a planning, this is the tone of the modern construction. New techniques, as of the structural masonry it comes revolutionizing the construction, the study of colors gain science air in accordance with each type of construction, the sizing of the illumination allow the total control of the comfort for the environment, the construction materials had never had as much added technology, making possible reinventarformas to construct, bringing again the natural illumination for inside of the constructions, as the winter garden, that with the diverse matériais of covering took new airs. Another trend is the details in plaster, as sancas of plaster, the plaster baseboard, the wheel plaster ceilings and the proper plaster ceiling, to some time the basic material of construction left of being sand and rock, bringing more sophistication for the workmanships, materials of quality allies to a rich project architectural are two parts base for the success of its special workmanship with one destque for the color study, that makes all difference for its decoration. The Brazilian architecture possesss singular caracteristicas in its diverse regions, the mixture of the européia architecture with the habits of the diverse peoples and cultures that had formed Brazil, with the influence of the climate, had created only caracteristicas, many times observed only in some cities, and even though and quarters inside of great cities, great urban centers.