arquitetura

 

Garden

Garden

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House Architecture and Construction


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arquitetura

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The origins of the human being are on to the natural way, that, even so provided to shelter and feeding to it, if it showed inhospitable. When they had acquired certain degree of civilization, the men they had wanted to keep its ancestral relation with the nature and had finished for adapting it, in accordance with gostos and times, to the proper necessities. Therefore, it can be said that the Garden is an attempt to rescue the lost paradise.
Garden is an extension of land planted with appreciable vegetal species for the foliage or budding. The plants can associate it elements as lakes, sources, statues, pérgulas, stairs, grottos, greenhouses, vases, pavilions, floors, applied balustrades to etc. jardinagem Is called the art and the technique to cultivate Gardens.
According to its destination, the scientific or botanical Gardens, destined to the research and education are distinguished, and of leisure, or Gardens properly said, particular as public, in such a way dedicated to the stroll and rest, in which cousin the ordinance and the aesthetic one. The Garden of leisure of great dimensions, in general call park, is almost always public.
Historical evolution. The Gardens oldest had been created in Egypt and the Mesopotâmia. The Egyptians had been distinguished for the use of lottery flowers and all type of fruitful trees, and for generally including small artificial lakes in its Gardens. In Babilônia, the suspended Gardens had been célebres, made use in terraces, enclosed between the seven wonders of the old world. Between the Persians, the Garden of Ciro became famous, next to its palace, that incluía a hunting area.
The Greek world did not give much attention to the leisure Garden, more worried about the Gardens of religious character next to the temples. The hellenistic Gardens, as well as the ones of the imperial time in Rome, had been distinguished for the luxury. The Romans in such a way possuíam green areas in the urban houses how much in the villages in the outskirts of the city. In general they created, by means of afrescos, the illusion of a landscaped area in the interior of the houses.
The Gardens of the Extreme East had been also célebres. In China, for influence of taoísmo, it searched harmonious combination of natural elements, as water and rocks, beyond bridges and pavilions. The Japanese Garden, as much in hill (tsukiyama) as in plain land (hiraniwa), was always carefully elaborated and searched the integration of the man with the nature.
The Islamic Garden searched to reproduce the conception of a small paradise and gave great importance to the aquatic element, had its scarcity in the Arab landscape. It counted on innumerable aromatical plants and in general it made use of complex nets of water transport, with aqueducts and canals, and of distribution, by means of tanks and sources. It was characterized for being organized around a axle. The main examples are the Spanish Gardens of the Alhambra, in Granada, and of Medina Azahara, close to Córdoba, today missing people.
The prototípico medieval Garden was identified generally with the one of the claustros of the monasteries, areas of meditation around of a central source. In the height of the gótica art, with the social progress, the particular Garden in the palaces appeared of the noblemen and monarchs. In all they, were frequent fruitful trees and medicinal plants.
In the Gardens of the Renaissance, exemplificados for the Italian Garden, what she presents yourself is an impact composition, that launches hand of all the resources, since the generalized job of constructed elements of high requinte, to the creation of great rich perspectives of scenic elements and exuberant plantios, diversified for the increasing introduction of deriving vegetal species of exotic countries. Extensions of field and vegetation were balanced that combined stairs, statues, sources, trees and grottos of fantastic aspect. It fits to cite of Villa Madama and Belvedere, in Rome, respectively projected for Rafael and Donato Bramante.
With the baroque one the Garden was imposed French cortesão, similar to the Italian model, even so without distinction of levels. Its main promoter was the architect and city planning Andres Le Nôtre, who drew, among others, the Gardens of Versailles, Fontainebleau and the Tulherias. In them he combined the order and geometry, and rationally mesclava artificial seedbeds, sculptures, lakes and strolls. This style spread out for all the Europe from the parisiense cut. The Gardens of Aranjuez and La are good examples Farm of San Ildefonso, in Spain, and of Potsdam, in Germany.
Different of the French one it was the British Garden, that it looked to imitate the nature, using for this lawns, rivers, forests, islands and some constructions, as bridges and small pavilions, but without the intervention of the hand was noticed in great measure human being. Beyond this “natural” Garden, the British also liked to plant small green areas next to its houses.
In century XX, the constructions had gradually reduced the available space for the nature, what it provoked fort reaction of being able them public, with the objective to endow the cities with landscaped places (parks, avenues, squares) for stroll and rest. The private initiative also looked for to create greater interrelation between the residences and the environment, reason for which is each more frequent time the presence of small Gardens, with lawn, trees and flowers, next to the new blocks of buildings, while the particular terraces if full of vases of plants.
rocky Garden. He is one of the types of Garden of bigger originalidade, for the combination many times natural between plants and rocks.
The constructed rocky Garden must be placed, when possible, in a hillside unprovided of great trees and with rocky blocks partially embedded, in order to allow position of distinction for the plants. The rocks are made use with certain care, to prevent erosions, with the greaters in the base. Through the Garden more or less winding ways are traced, allowing to the access its different points.
Japanese Garden. The principles obeyed for the Japanese Garden are total different of that they conduct the Garden in the Ocidente. The art to construct Gardens, in Japan, is very old, and suffered a process from diverse estruturação of excessively. Historicamente, this art was imported of China and Korea, by means of the Buddhist missionaries in century VI. The first Gardens were cultivated in monasteries and, therefore, very the dominant philosophy and the religion had been influenced by. The home, for the Japanese, must be provided with a Garden as an element of comfort and joy. The Garden is of close nature and obeys the definite space limitations.
Gardens in Brazil. The influence was marcante, in Brazil, of the French paisagista Auguste-François-Marie Glaziou, that in century XIX constructed and remodelled the most important parks of Rio De Janeiro, as the Fifth of the Boa Vista and Field of Santana, printing to them the style of the British Garden. After this, the Brazilian Garden was practically motionless until, in middle of century XX, a renovador movement had beginning, where if detached Atílio Leather strap Rasp, and that it found its maximum expression in Robert Burle-Marx. Constant introduction of new species of the tropical flora enters the expressivas characteristics of the Gardens of Burle-Marx is distinguished it, the ecological sense in the way to group the plants and the clear concern to carry through the harmony between the Garden -- constructed landscape -- e the surrounding nature -- natural landscape.
jardinagem
To create a Garden, she is necessary to take in account its use (public or private), the available land, the aesthetic one desired, the stations of the year and the climate, beyond carrying through different works of care and protection of the plants that compose the landscaped area.
In first place, it is necessary to prepare the ground. The land must be removed, in order to air it, and be enriched with seasonings and fertilizers, for then initiating the plantation. In the sowing process, that if in accordance with carries through at different times of the year the characteristics of the plants, the seeds are planted in the catch-crops. When they reach the adjusted size, the sprouts are transplantados for another place, already dug and chemical preparation, where they will grow definitively (vases, parks, Gardens, terraces).
The plants need, for its growth, of certain attentions, as the regadura, the pruning or cut of parts of caule to favor its evolution, the treatment with insecticides to finish with the insects and parasites, and the elimination of harmful grass. In all these works are necessary diverse tools, as much to cultivate the ground (shovel, hoe, pitchfork, wooden rake), as for specific ends (shears to trim, spray, hose for regadura).
Plantios. The jardinísticos plantios extremely are diversified and play numerous functions in the structure of the Garden and the intricate relationship between the man and the domesticated vegetation. Frequently it has that to take care of to the necessity to re-cover with definitive plants surfaces. This classroom of plantios is solved in bigger scale for the use of lawns and of relvados or ground coverings. The lawns are grassy surfaces re-covered with perennial, whose growth is controlled for periodic operations of cut. They are component irreplaceable in the function to give distinction or to create perspectives for the appreciation of the too much elements of the Garden. It has a very close relation enters the requirements of illumination and the possibility to establish lawns. In the places of bigger shade, this function is transferred the special ground coverings to such environments. The relvados ground coverings or are herbaceous species of fast growth, notables for its budding (margaridão), texture (coat-of-bear) or for the adaptation the determined conditions (jibóia, false violet).
In certain cases, the surfaces to re-cover strong are inclined or even though vertical (walls) e, in these cases, appeals apt radicantes species (hera), casmófilas or to grow in cracks (fúcsia) or pendants (Russelia).
In other situations, plants are used to form limitations special. The windbreaks belong to this category, lined up vegetal masses against the dominant direction of the wind whose effect if wants to attenuate. For this end trees of growth relatively fast e with the pantries endowed with necessary resistance (eucalipto, tamarindo) or great shrubs are used (Assonia). Between these if they fit you surround them alive (Calliandra, Hibiscus) and the borduras (box tree, Malpighia).
However, where the jardinista one better can exert its talent is in the estruturação of the volumes inside of the composition. To this respect, the main ways are the plantios of arbóreos and arbustivos bulks, and isolated trees and shrubs. Presences notables in this type of work are the palms, with the upright of its shafts, and the plants of escultural character (Agave, Nolina, Dracaena, Philodendron).
Other plants loan to the Garden all the decurrent motivation of its coloring, texture or of the college to emanate perfumes. It is the group that encloses the calls foliages (Coleus, Euphorbia, Acalypha), the shrubs of showy budding (Calliandra, Erythrina, Callistemon) or of marcante texture (Nerium, Parkinsonia, Pyracantha). The main chromatic element in the Garden is represented by the buddings. The floríferas plants can be annual, used species in foldings seat (crisântemo, cravina, Zinnia), bulbous plants (Crinum, Hippeastrum, Haemanthus) or herbaceous, arbustivas and subarbustivas species (Verbena, Strelitzia, Hydrangea). To this set the diversified contingent of the roseiras belongs, that, for its wealth, variety and value as cut flower, had given cause to the individualização of a peculiar type of Garden -- the roseiral.
Other types of plants still must be mentioned that if point out for the ownership of singular qualities or the special possibility of culture in environments. The gamma of the trepadeiras has initially all here, for which the jardinística individualizou a particular solution with the construction of pérgulas and treliças. The group of sexícolas plants is followed, of great ornamental value, whose ecological peculiarities had led to the formularization of a proper solution -- the rocky Garden. Another one in case that it is of the situated plants in dependent environments of the habitation, as one verifies in Gardenings and vases. They are capable to grow in small volume of land and to resist the very irregular rules (gerânio, peperômia, Sansevieria). Tolerant to the dryness and the shade they are the calls plants for interiors (Aspidistra, Aglaonema, Brassaia). Finally, a great group of ornamental plants is of the aquatic plants, whose presence very contributes for the valuation of the water collections in the interior of the jardinística composition. The introduction of groups of aquatic in the Garden is factor of motivation for the users, grace of the beauty of its representatives (Cyperus, Pontederia, Tydhonodorum).

Source: ©Encyclopaedia Britannica of Brazil Ltda Publications.

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