House Architecture and Construction
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Being a used tecnica very in the architecture, for assembly of miniatured models as objective of evaluation and it analyzes aesthetic and structural, other areas exist diverse that tambem use the construction of Mockups.
The methodology proposal in this work, is come back toward the activity of the pupil guided for the professor. The Mockup elaboration, stimulates the pupil to transform the bidimensional one for the three-dimensional one. The construction of three-dimensional models propitiates the development of the perception and differentiation of horizontal scale and vertical scale. Through the Mockup, the landscape of integrated form can be analyzed.
The Mockup is a didactic resource that allows the three-dimensional visualization of the relief, presenting of clear form the space notion. In the process of elaboration of maps, Michaelis (1970), always part of the use of the Mockup, through the construction of maps of great scale in the patio of the school. The developed didactic activities with the pupils in discipline Cartography of the Course of Graduation in Geography of the IGCE/UNESP - River Clearly, is carried through from the transmission of the beddings of the Systematic Cartography; concepts of scale, projection, planimetric and altimetric content of a topographical letter. One of the faced problems most serious in the cartography education, for beginning pupils in the course of graduation in geography, is the perception of the relief from the level curves. Works of field are carried through, aiming at to minimize such problems; however, most of the time, the problems persist. Segundo Simielli et al. (1991), the Mockup appears then as the process of restitution of the “concrete” (relief) from a “abstraction” (level curves), centering there its real utility, complemented with the diverse uses from this model concrete worked for the pupils. The following step in these activities, consists of the generation of models 3D in SIG (System of Geographic Information). The exercise of construction of the Mockup, beyond exerting a therapeutical effect, comes to minimize this deficiency therefore, stimulates the pupil to transform the bidimensional one (map) for the three-dimensional one (Mockup); it assists in the learning of the morfometria, mainly declivity, orientation of sources and topographical profile; it contributes with the development of the perception and differentiation of horizontal scale and vertical scale. The Mockup contributes, also, in the learning of carrying pupils of visual deficiency, being able these, to feel the different forms of the relief through the tato.
The objective of this work consists of the development of techniques for the three-dimensional perception of the relief, offering the pupils, a powerful and relatively simple didactic resource of if constructing (Mockup); also with pupils of 1º and 2º degrees.
In these activities, nine Mockups with 1/10000 horizontal scale of and vertical scale of 1/2000 had been constructed. The stages of elaboration of the Mockup can give subsidies to the pupils of Geography, in the ticket of the abstract level for the level
concrete. The first stage of execution of the Mockup constitutes in the withdrawal of the curves of level in the vegetal paper for, after that, being carried to a isopor plate. After the clipping of the isopor, the plates are glue, having as reference the letter base. The intervals of the plates are filled with plaster diluted in water. After that, it is used of a sandpaper to give the finishing. Finally, the surface of the Mockup is painted with the color beje and added the planimetric elements, as for example, the hydrography in the blue color and the urban area, in the red color. After the drying, the Mockup receives a layer from varnish, to give to greater protection.
With this activity, the potential fort of the didactic resource was evident. The difficulties of perception of the relief, found for occasion of learning of the planimetric and altimetric content of a topographical letter in discipline cartography, had been, in good part, cured for this resource, that complemented those given lessons. In such a way, one covered all the available didactic resources: theoretical and practical lesson on the planimetric and altimetric content of a topographical letter, work of field, construction of the Mockup and generation of three-dimensional models in SIG. From the Mockup, the pupil can itself be stimulated to carry through an integrated analysis of the landscape, through the quarrel of subjects as: use of the land, hydrography, antrópica action, constitution of the ground, type of vegetation, among others. He is emplícito, in the process, the power of the cartography as communication vehicle. Segundo Koeman (1971), the cartography, one communication form, must, in fact, know its place in the extensive context of the doctrine of the communication. We must be conscientious of that, in general, the theory of the communication is not restricted to the expressiva capacity of the graphical symbols, but also includes the communication through sounds, verbal language and writing, mimic, figures (they are they in movement or not). The spatial orientation in the person with visual deficiency has a deficit in result of the absence of the visual stimulatons. The confection of Mockups for the aid to the people of this group showed sufficiently satisfactory in the process of construction of a mental map. It was evidenced, by means of interviews to the professors who had used the Mockups, important characteristics techniques for its adjusted construction and use for the deficient appearances (Ds.Vs). The necessity of elaboration of an education method was also confirmed that obtains to place this group in contact with this material of safe and adjusted form in way that can remove optimum possible result of this proposal of use of Mockups so that they can present an improvement in its autonomy, as much for the activities day to day how much in the esportivas activities. The study also it comes to indicate that to this adequacy, the introduction of pedagogical processes becomes necessary that propitiate the development of cognitivas abstractions, mainly with regard to the geometric figures beyond that they can make with that sinestésico the tactile system/can give conditions to make them “to enxergarem” the components of the Mockup and to trace its proper mental ways.