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The urban free spaces are one of the main fields of work of the Architecture of the landscape. The Paisagismo (also called for architecture of the landscape, paisagista architecture or paisagística architecture) is the art and technique to promote the project, planning, management and preservation of free, urban spaces or not, of form to process micron and macro-landscapes.
Since the boarding of the problem of design of the landscape is similar to the faced one in the architecture, as much is considered that the landscape is a to be constructed element, how much the buildings and the urban environment: of this form, the architecture of the landscape is an extension of the architecture, as it disciplines, of a ampler form.
Originally related only to the drawing of gardens and squares, considering only the aesthetic and scenic aspects of the project of a place, the Paisagismo throughout the time was accumulating of stocks bigger scales and proposals, arriving if to confuse with the urban drawing and incorporating relative the partner-economic 0 variable to the problems in question.
While profession, the paisagista architecture encloses a set of disciplines related to the project architectural, the regional and urban planning, the preservation of the natural and constructed environment and the historic site, to the planning of systems of leisure and recreation and sinteticamente to the space planning.
The architecture of the landscape is, as well as the proper architecture, a field to multidiscipline, involving the mathematics, natural sciences and social, engineering, the arts, the technology, the politics, etc. Although normally to be associated with the jardinagem for the lay public, the paisagista architecture involves all the possible constituent elements of the landscape, is natural they or not.
The Paisagismo is not only the creation of gardens through the disordered plantation of some ornamental plants, is one allied artisan technique to the sensitivity, that it looks to inside reconstitute the natural landscape of the scene devastado for the constructions. It requires regional knowledge of botany, ecology, climatic variations and styles architectural, being also important the knowledge of the plastic compatibilities for the balance of the forms and colors.
The purpose of the Paisagismo is the integration of the man with the nature, authorizing to it better conditions of life for the balance of the environment. It encloses all the areas where if the presence of the human being registers. Even though in the deserts alone the presence of the human beings in oases is noticed, where on native vegetation to the water exists. Since the agricultural areas until the regions metropolitans, the Paisagismo must act as factor of balance between the man and the environment.
The maintenance of green areas in the great industries positively influences for the increase of the production, arriving to assure a reduction in the indices of industrial accidents. A amena landscape in the areas of the plants, alleviating the metallic artificialidade of the maquinários of work, diminishes the tension of the workers.
The urban Paisagismo has for object the open spaces (not constructed) and the free areas, with functions of recreation, amenização and circulation, among others, being differentiated between itself for the physical dimensions, space abrangência, functionality, tipologia or amount of vegetal covering.
The creation of internal gardens (Paisagismo of internal areas), in the residences or commercial areas, proves the necessity of the human being in remaining itself on to the nature.
road Paisagismo is the integration of the road to the landscape which it crosses. The vegetation provides to greater stability to lands of the domain bands, diminishing the particle movement of the ground and facilitating draining workmanships that regularly are sanded by occasion of rains.
The term arborization of roads is used of generic form to not only assign the arborization properly said, but also the too much adjacent coverings of its edges, slopes and lands. The arborization could be implanted or be improved, developing it existing vegetation with the handling of the domain band.
The handling of the domain band consists of a set of practical that they aim at the execution of the adequate handling of the remaining vegetation, selecting the species paisagisticamente interesting and placing them in prominence places and protecting the remaining species.
The species must be selected considering factors as:
* persistence of the foliage
* system to radicular and decorative plastic characteristics of the foliage
* trunk, pantry and coloration
Had to the works of terraplanagem of the domain bands, it has a great difficulty in if establishing species trippings, the more trees. For this, the choice falls again on suitable rustic natives to the region. The period of rains of the region sends regards as to time adjusted for the plantation.
The functions of the agricultural Paisagismo are not limited to the aesthetic embelezamento of the landscape, but also to them you practise preservacionistas, indispensable to the maintenance of the essential links to the balance of the ecosystem in the areas of its implantation. It is exerted of full form, combining itself perfectly to the nature.
To reach good results factors exist that must be known:
1. Climate - the possible species determine to be introduced in the area.
2. Relief - the general tracing of the project in homogeneous accord with the natural landscape will guide.
3. Native vegetation - it functions as orientation in the species election and will serve of base for the continuation of the same characteristics of the vegetal species or control point to a change of characteristics in order to provide to contrasts or reasons of attraction.
4. Ground - verified the physical constitution of the ground, which species can be foreseen will be adaptarão, which the dimensions of the hollows for plantation and the fertilization required for a good development.
5. Winds - the knowledge of the routes of the predominant winds in the area of the project makes possible to assign the places most favorable for the plantation of determined species.
6. Natural monuments - any production of the nature that of its qualities reasons of bonanza interest constitute, as paleontological elements (fósseis), geomorfológicos elements (mineral grottos, sumidouros, deposits), topographical elements (water falls, landscapes), florísticos or botanical elements (rare forests, plants), zoological elements (fauna), etnográficos elements (aboriginal, rupestres registrations, ruins).
7. Water - factor of functional and aesthetic importance. Functionary because the survival and the success of the composition will depend on the water, and aesthetic because the water is a decorative and attractive element.
8. Main activity of the property - it will determine the characteristics of the project, as:
* Arborization of vicinal roads.
* Ecological heterogeneous reforestations.
* Implantation of protective vegetation of springs, water sources and courses.
* Creation of green areas in field clubs, condominiums of mansions, thermal houses of field, inns, stations, small farms.
* Protective and/or reconstituinte vegetal covering of unstable ground (slopes, voçorocas). One of the most disastrous consequences of the disruption of the natural links reflects in the ground, causing its biological weakness e, later, the physical disaggregation, leading to the erosion of its layers, of the superficial ones until the deep ones. With the job of adjusted vegetal species, it has a reduction of these damages.
* Cause bigger problems in greenhouses of what in houses and the exterior.
Components auxiliary in the agricultural Paisagismo
1. Lawns - beyond the embelezamento of the landscape, the lawns have the important function to protect the ground of the direct action of the solar rays, preventing its superficial sterilization. Another extremely important function is the protection against the erosion. The vegetal covering on the ground prevents that the water torrents and the action of the winds remove parcels of the surface.
2. Lakes - its presence propitiates an intense and attractive visual variation in the landscape; beyond decorative, the lake influences the ecosystem marcantemente, wants for its capacity in keeping the balance of the atmospheric humidity wants for favoring the maintenance of the hídrico system.
3. Renques cuts wind - they are distinguished it action of the free winds, almost constant in determined times of the year, in some regions. The plants submitted to its intermittent action suffer to serious losses of liquid, presenting burnings in its leves, others are crooked and envergadas for chains. The indicated species must be combined in such a way to the landscape visually how much functionally, not to harm the landscape.
4. Maçicos Floral - they are indicated in the paisagístico project, always in places for where they pass the people or to the reach of the sight. For this end, species of plants are indicated that produce floradas satiated and showy, being able itself to alternate them the station in accordance with, what it becomes the interado dynamic appearance with the natural changes. How much to the format of the seedbeds, the preference is for sinuosas or amebianas forms, for the slightness.
5. Forests - they must always exist, therefore the benefits are extremely significant to the environment. Heterogeneous forests propitiate an integration with the fauna and the local flora. They can contain, for example, forest essences, ornamental essences, fruitful trees. They must provide a sensation of “the slightness”, beyond, in some cases, to serve as local for ambient education. In this in case that it is common to place small plates in the trees with the scientific name, vulgar and the some important characteristics.
With the increase of stress urban of the great cities, the necessity to be next to the nature has increased consideravelmente. The green areas provide leisure areas, areas for practical of sports, meditation, study and entertainment.
In recent years, it had an increment in the search of information on as to brighten up the “ash” of the building, asphalt, as to annul the effect of the urban pollution. The green areas, the parks, the arborization of the streets, the avenues, the public squares, the clubs, the public or particular gardens, had extremely passed of places with some plants made use without no care the drawn places and with compositions of colors, forms and textures, providing a amenizador and relaxante appearance.
For each project of Paisagismo, factors exist if to consider, as the reason to implant, where to implant, as to implant, as to keep, that style, that colors and which the desirable characteristics of the plants.
For the arborization of streets, normally each city has its rules and models established for professionals of the area, who will go to evaluate streets, avenues, squares, parks, public gardens e, after, to implant its project of adjusted form more to the conditions of the city.
How much the gardens of building, houses, particular industries or offices, schools and clubs, have a series of other excellent factors, and normally it has more malleability in the accomplishment of the project.
Because the people want plants in its gardens
1. In the entrances of the houses or clubs, a composition of colors as carpet of good comings.
2. Plants that frame, skirt some aspect as drawn, statues, mirantes, sources and swimming pools.
3. Plants that delimit spaces as, for example, in areas closed for relaxation and studies.
4. To value the property.
5. For areas of recreation, ambient education.
6. To hide some defect or some visually strange object in the property.
7. As it breaks winds, curtains of trees or trepadeiras, to provide to greater privacy.
8. To attract birds.
9. To cultivate temperos, grass or flowers for cut.
Beyond these, other factors exist innumerable that are making with that the people look for to invest in its green areas, since small until great.
Paisagismo of Internal Areas
In this area, the internal Paisagismo will go to complement the decoration, with its livewares and colorings, what it will provide a light sensation, but dynamic.
It can be divided in: internal gardens, gardens in terraces, drawn and areas of recreation. In this type of project they exist, as in the others, a study if to make, so that a harmony between the environment and the garden is reached.
Factors to be considered:
1. Purpose (domestic servant, advertising or recreativo).
2. Predominant forms, colors, textures.
3. Style architectural.
4. Existing illumination (artificial or natural).
5. In the possible measure do, the profile of the people who interact in the place.
The knowledge of the characteristics of the plants how much to its adaptability and growth in the places is extremely vital for this project. Plants are ornaments livings creature, that grow and if they develop, subtle change with the stations of the year, presenting always a different aspect and needing constant cares.
* Well dosed periodic irrigations and.
* Periodic fertilization, in accordance with the necessities of each species.
* Cleanness weekly, biweekly, or monthly, depending on the conditions of the plant.
* Superficial preparation of the ground.
* Prevention and treatment of plagues and/or illnesses.
* Substitution of sick plants or deceased.