Projects - Management of risks of Project
Projects - Management of risks of Project
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Risks of Project can be defined as the conditions that, in case that they come to occur, can compromise or hinder the accomplishment of data Project. The necessity to manage risks elapses, mainly, of the constatação of that the amount and diversity of the risks of Project exceed the sum of placed resources to neutralize all these risks during the execution of the Project. This situation demand that the risks of Project must be prioritized or “managed” adequately.
Management of integration of Projects
The Management of Integration of Project includes the processes required to assure that the diverse elements of the Project adequately are co-ordinated. It involves to make compensations between eventually competing objectives and alternatives, in order to reach or to surpass the necessities and expectations.
While all the processes of management of integrated Projects are in some way, the described processes are by its very nature integrativos.
A general vision of the following main processes:
- To develop the term of opening of the Project - formal authorization of the Project;
- To develop the declaration of the preliminary target - vision of high level of the target of the Project;
- Development of the Plan of management of the Project - to add the results of the other processes of planning being constructed a coherent and consistent document;
- Execution of the Plan of the Project - to take the handle the Project through the accomplishment of the enclosed activities in it.
- To monitor and to control the work of the Project - Verification of the course, performance of the execution of the plan of management of the Project;
- General Control of Changes - to co-ordinate the changes through the entire Project.
- Closing of the Project - the process of closing of the Project involves as administrative closing, contract, formalização of the deliveries of the Project.
Management of the target of the Project
In accordance with PMBOK, the Management of the Target of the Project are composed of the “processes to guarantee that the Project includes the work all demanded, and only the demanded work, to complete the Project successfully”
The purposes of the Management of the Target of the Project include the definition of the work necessary to conclude the Project, to serve as guide (or control point) to determine that work is not enclosed (or is not necessary) in the Project.
The target is the “focus” of the Project. The target of the Project is differed from the target of the product in the measure where the target of the Project defines the work necessary to make the product, and the target of the product defines the resources (attributes and behaviors) of the product that is being created.
The business-oriented Projects do not deviate frequently from the focus of the company, and generally they are related to its activity end.
Election of the Project for its target
The majority of the Projects passes for a process to determine its cost and value. They are selected on the basis of diverse conditions: chance, necessity, demands of the customer, among others. The target of the Project must be created to give has supported to the purpose and the necessity of the Project.
The process of election based on the value perceived normally is a relation cost/benefit (BCR). This type of study is comparative, and determines if the Project valley the penalty to be made.
Another model of election is the method of restricted otimização. These methods are used more frequently in great Projects, and if they concentrate in relatively complex mathematical equations. Some of the models most common are: linear programming, not linear programming, whole number algorithms and multiobjective programming.
Beginning of the Project
When a Project is selected, the next step is the beginning processes. One of the main exits of the beginning is the patent of the Project, that is important to give authority for the Project.
The patent of the Project gives name to the Project, and defines manager of Project. Also it defines the business-oriented necessities to be satisfied for the product of the Project. One says that the Project does not exist until a patent has been created.
Planning of the target of the Project
The planning of the target of the Project is made through the process called ``plain management of the target''.
To determine which it is the target of the Project, exists much planning of the target. For this, as much the manager how much the team needs to have a vision unified on which is the components of the Project, of its requirements, the expectation of stakeholders of the Project, and where the Project if incases in the necessity of business of these stakeholders.
The result of the processes of planning of target is the declaration of target. The declaration of target says what it is inside and what it is it are of the Project, clear way and without ambiguities.
It is important that the declaration of target well-is made, and that it has agreement on it. When the declaration of target will be ready, the team of the Project, stakeholders, the sponsor of the Project and the manager of Projects will not have to change the target - unless she has a very strong reason that justifies this change (that almost certainly it implies in impacts in the cost of the Project) xxx
Processes of the Management of the target of the Project
These processes after come the plans of management of the target. They guarantee that the target will include the work all demanded - and the demanded work - to only complete the Project. Also she registers as the changes will be able to enter in the target, and with that frequency expects that the target moves.
Control of changes of the target of the Project
To guarantee that changes are waked up by all
To determine when a change occurred
Management of a change quando/se it to occur
Verification of the target of the Project
The verification of the target is the process to formal accept the work of the Project, as defined in its documentation, the target of the Project, or in the contract, when it will be the case. The formal acceptance demands the signature for acceptance of the product.
The verification of the target of the Project occurs at definitive moments:
In the end of the Project
In the end of phase of the Project
In the delivery of the main end items inside of the Project.
Management of Time of Projects
Its objective is to guarantee, that the Project will be concluded inside of the definitive and stipulated stated period. The Management of Time together with the Management of Costs, is the areas of bigger requirement inside of a Project, therefore, they are vísiveis of the management of Project.
We can in using them of the following parameters: Activities, Duration, Dependences and one Table Calendar, to determine and to relate the days and the Duration of each stage.
Activities: They are the processes properly said as: Beginning, Control,… and Ending.
Duration: the time expense in each activity (days, hours, etc)
Dependences: It is the relationship between the activities. We can after inform that one definitive activity could only be initiated or be continued, another definitive activity.
Management of cost of Projects
The management of cost of the Project includes the processes necessary to assure that the Project will be concluded inside of the approved budget. The costs normally are measured in monetary sums, as real or dollars, that must be paid to acquire merchandises, goods and services. For the fact of the Projects to cost money and to redirect resources that could be applied in other areas, are very important for the controlling of Projects to understand on management of costs. The management of costs of Projects of technology of the information is still more critical, mainly it will have been based on estimates of costs where the requirements and the target not yet are total clear. If to relembrarmos of the considerações made in the topic on target management, will be able to conclude one more time that cost and target strong are related, and that they depend on the agreement clearly of the requirements of the user to be esteem with more precision. Escopos badly defined by problems of requirements also badly-understood at the beginning generates problems of costs in the estimates, the planning, the execution and the control of the Project; e, consequently, the costs in the end of the Project will tend to increase very and to surpass the foreseen budget. One another reason for the variation of costs in Projects of technology of the information is when these involve new technologies. Any new technology that not yet was tested exhaustingly brings obtains inherited risks. The ideal is not to supply no information on the cost of Project the customer without before validating completely the agreement of the requirements and the target with the users and without before evaluating the available tecnolgias at the moment. This process must involve the manager of the Project, the members of the teams of the Project and the user. Imperfections in the estimates, variations and surprises of costs can be minimized in Projects of technology of the information without will be used the processes of cost management, as structuralized in the PMBOK.
The budgetary composition if constitutes in a plan in which the placed resources are associates to its respective costs. Therefore, the act to elaborate a budget means to place scarce resources proceeding from some sources in an organization. The result of a process of allocation of resources frequently does not satisfy the controlling, which must be adapted to a reality imposed for the restrictions of a budget. However it is verified that the budget restrictions if constitute necessarily in what provides sustentation to one enterprise politics. A measure of importance of the result of this process if reflects in as the diverse activities of a company adequately are played. A majority of the controlling seniores of that we have knowledge tends to be impartial in the conduction of the process of budgetary composition, placing resources for each planned activity in “the accurate” level - nor placing resources above of the foreseen one, what it causes and it stimulates a negligent management, nor placing resources below of the foreseen one, what will go to inhibit and to frustrate the plans which a commitment were engaged. Considering itself that a manager will be the responsible one for the use of resources with intention to reach definitive objective, the use of resources will have to be monitored with sufficient care. This fact allows that shunting lines of the planned use can be collated with the progress of the Project, being generated reports in this direction case the expenses with the placed resources is not compatible with the reached results. In the level highest it is the planning of the Project as a whole, that then it is divided diverse times and, perhaps, still again in a “nest” of plans. Planejamentos de Projetos had demonstrated to be equivalents to a EAP. If to verify the cost of a EAP step by step, the result will be the development of a budget for a Project. If to verify the costs of the planning of a process, we will go to arrive accurately the point the same. Inside of this vision, the budgetary composition is simply the planning of Project seen in another way.
So that let us can proceed to a budgetary composition, we must foresee that types of resources will be necessary for the Project, the necessary amount of each one of them, when the same ones will be necessary and which will be its cost - including the effect of a potential inflation. The uncertainty is part of any forecast, even so some forecasts presents a lesser degree of uncertainties of what others. An experienced person in a estimate of costs will be capable to foresee the necessary amount of bricks in the construction of a wall with determined dimensions, inside of a tolerance of 1 or 2% (simply having to foresee a small amount additional referring the bricks that will be you deliver broken or in standard of different color, beyond some more than they will go to break during the construction work). On the other hand, errors are more citizens to occur of much more ample form regarding to the amount of programmed hours or lines of code that will be necessary to the production of determined software. Although the computation science to become this sufficiently reasonable estimate, the uncertainty level is consideravelmente bigger, as well as the dimension of the errors also very bigger. In some fields, the methods for estimate of costs very are well defined. Each company possesss its general rule as for the estimate of costs, which normally bring the practical experience acquired by some involved collaborators with this activity during some years. An experienced book producer can, for example, to examine a manuscript and, after to make some questions regarding the amount and type of illustrations and the quality of the used paper, will be able to make a estimate razoavelmente needs regarding the costs necessary to produce a book. It is interesting to understand that the development of a budgetary composition for Projects is much more difficult of what the development of referring budgets the activities most frequent in a company. The influence of historical factors is much more strong in the composition of a budget of an activity in course. However the budgetary composition of a Project cannot depend on the tradition. At the beginning of a Project, it can be that previous budgets do not exist to serve as base. Certain author affirmed: “During determined occasions the responsible ones for the budget could be ahead of budgets and referring audit reports the similar Projects, to serve of reference; however such references are, in the best one of the hypotheses, sufficiently elementary. On all in case that, all Project is special and all budget if it bases on forecasts of use of resources and its costs associates. Therefore the estimate of costs for any Project involves risks.” In the case of Projects that if develop throughout some years, other decurrent problems exist. The planning and the cronograma are established at the beginning of the same; however, throughout the years, it will be able to have an alteration in the forecast of use of resources due to the fact to exist new materials and services, equipment and human resources - available now to a different cost of that it was esteem. How much bigger the duration of a Project, minor the reliable degree that a manager of Project will be able to have that traditional methods and costs will be excellent. As if everything this was not enough, the incorrect vision of some executives frequently is not accented with respect to Projects of what the operations in course.