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According to Project Management Institute, Project is a temporary effort undertaken to create a product or only service. In such a way, a Project has definite beginning and end and results in a product or service of some different form of all the others previously produced.
Its result can be:
A product or produced object, quantificável and that it can be a final item or a component item
A capacity to carry through a service, as business-oriented functions that give support to the production or to the distribution
A result, as resulted final or documents. For example, a Project of research develops a knowledge that can be used to determine if a trend is present or or if a new process will not go to benefit the society.
The singularity is an important characteristic of the deliveries of the Project. For example, many thousands of building of offices had been constructed, but each building in particular is only-has different proprietor, Project different, local different, construction different, etc. the presence of repetitive elements not dumb the basic singularity of the work of the Project.
Before the Project, the worker is common still to make the preparation of a First draft, that is the preparatory study of the Project.
In the software contexts, Project is used with the direction of the act to Project, to conceive anticipatedly. In this in case that, costuma also to use the word design.
Management of Projects
Management of Projects (or Management of Projects) is the application of knowledge, abilities and techniques in the elaboration of related activities to reach a set of daily pay-define objectives. The knowledge and the practical ones of the management of Projects are better described in terms of its component processes.
These processes can be classified in five groups of process (initiation, planning, execution, control and closing) and nine areas of knowledge (management of integration of Projects, management of target of Projects, management of time of Projects, management of cost of Projects, management of quality of Projects, management of human resources of Projects, management of communications of Projects, management of risks of Projects and management of acquisitions of Projects).
Reduced to its simpler form, the management of Projects is disciplines it to keep the risks of failure in how much necessary a so low level during the cycle of life of the Project. The risk of failure in accordance with increases the uncertainty presence during all the periods of training of the Project. One alternative point-of-sight says that management of Projects is disciplines it to define and to reach objectives at the same time where if it optimizes the use of resources (time, money, people, space, etc).
The management of Projects is frequent the responsibility of an intitled individual manager of Project. Ideally, this individual rare participates directly in the activities that produce the result final. On the contrary of this, the manager of Project works to keep the progress and gradual the mutual interaction of the diverse participants of the enterprise, in order to reduce the risk of failure of the Project.
In the computer science industry, generally it has two types of boardings comumente used in the management of Projects. The boardings of “the traditional” type identify a sequência of steps to be completed. These boardings contrast with the known boarding as agile development of software, where the Project is seen as a set of small tasks, instead of a complete process. The objective of this boarding is to reduce to the possible minimum overhead. This boarding is sufficient controversa, especially in very complex Projects. Exactly thus, it has conquered adepts in increasing numbers.
In the last few decades, they had in general emerged a series of boardings in the industry. Amongst these boardings if it detaches the boarding of the PMBOK, that if has become a standard of fact in diverse industries.
In the traditional boarding, we distinguish five periods of training in the development from a Project:
Initiation of Project
Planning of Project
Production of Project
Monitoramento de Projeto
Closing (conclusion) of Project
Nor all the Projects go to follow all these periods of training, since Projects can be locked up before its conclusion. Perhaps some Projects do not have planning or monitoramento. Some Projects will pass for periods of training 2, 3 and 4 multiple times.
The Project or enterprise above aims at the satisfaction of a necessity or chance, defined in the text as initial phase in which many involved areas and/or people exist. In general always it exists more than a solution or alternatives to take care of to the same necessities. The used technique to define the final solution passes for the development of extreme alternatives. The first one of low cost that takes care of the minimum necessities to be functional. Second it tries to take care of most of the requirements of the diverse involved areas in the target that results in a Project with bigger and very little competitive cost. From both alternatives an intermediate solution is developed enters both of the alternatives, that a good part of the requirements with a competitive cost takes care of.
Some sectors use variations of these periods of training. For example, in the civil construction, the Projects typically progress of periods of training as Daily pay-planning for Conceptual Design, schematical Design, Design of development, construction of drawings (or contract documents), and administration of construction. Although the names differ from industry for industry, the real periods of training typically follow the common steps to the resolution of problems (they problem solving): to define the problem, to balance options, to choose a way, implementation and evaluation.
The management of Projects tries to acquire control on four 0 variable:
Three of these 0 variable can be given by external or internal customers. (S) the value (es) of the remaining 0 variable is/is in charge of the manager of the Project, ideally based in solids estimate techniques. The final results must be waked up in a negotiation process enter the management of the Project and the customer. Generally, the values in time terms, cost, quality and target are defined by contract.
To keep the control on the Project of the beginning to the end, a manager of Projects uses several techniques, amongst which if they detach:
Planning of Project
Analysis of aggregate value
Management of risks of Project
Improvement of process
The planning of the Project (planning of Projecto, in Portugal) inside of the management of Projects is the process to quantify the time and budget that a Project will cost. The purpose of the planning of the Project is to create a plan of the Project that a manager of Project can use to follow the progress of its team.
1. It determines the accurate conditions so that the Project is finished or completed. Before it is absolutely clearly which are the objectives of the Project, it does not make sensible to start esteem how much time will lead and how much it will cost. Unhappyly, many controlling of Project fail to not examining this first stage crucial.
2. It all makes an inventory of the work that it needs to be made with a estimate of the necessary time for an only member of the team. This can be made in a session of the planning with all the members of the team. Tasks that will take much time to finish need to be broken in lesser tasks. The result is work breakdown structure - WBS. It is certifyd of that having indicated deliverables of the Project in the WBS so that the objectives of the Project are reached.
3. It identifies the needed resources to execute each terminal element of the WBS (each task). At this moment you can esteem the cost to deliver each terminal element e, consequently, all the Project (approach bottom-up).
4. It decides if this plan makes direction, that is, if the costs justify the benefits. It modifies the objectives and the work as required.
5. It defines dependences between tasks. Some tasks need to be finished before other tasks can start. Putting conclusion tasks in sequence, a manager of Project constructs a net of Project (diagram PERT).
6. He calculates the minimum time to execute the Project: it is the longest passage through the net of Projeto (PERT) of the start of the Project until its extremity. This passage is called critical way. The Other tasks can be made in parallel to the critical way, but any delay in the tasks of the critical way will result automatically in a delay of the total stated period to finish the Project.
7. It creates a cronograma of the Project, for example, using a diagram of Gantt.
8. It makes a plan of management of risks and modifies the Project in accordance with this plan.
9. It gets the comprometimento of the organization in initiating the execution of the Project.
The planning of the Project is not something only to be made a time in the start of the Project. To observe the progress of its team and to adequately bring up to date the plan of the Project must be a constant task of the manager of Project. One programs informático of management of Project can correctly be useful if used. It has diverse standards of management of Project that they describe in detail as to planear and to control a Project.
We have that in the education area, in the development of the Project pedagogical politician, to fight against the difficulty of the school that is to construct a culture of Projects, that takes care of to this necessity of the world of today. The great difuculdade in the involved pricipais is to use the Project, for that the professors are many times. In this type of Project, the important one is each school to elaborate its, being essential that the professors are basic parts for the formation of the proposal pedagogical. It was if time where the education secretariats determined currílo and the methodology of all the net to each unit if limited to make numerical reports on its performance. Since the promulgation of the Law of Lines of direction and Bases of the national Education (LDB), in 1996 each school must elaborate its Project pedagogical politician hearing all personages whom interest in the success of the education has.